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Public Statues and Sculpture Association

The following biographies relate to sculptors included in Public Sculpture of Kensington and Chelsea with Westminster South-West by Terry Cavanagh, vol. 22 in the Public Sculpture of Britain series, published by the PSSA . This book is available to order in hard and softback at the PSSA bookshop.


AA: Architectural Association
ARA: Associate of the Royal Academy of Arts
ARIBA: Associate of the Royal Institute of British Architects
ARBS: Associate of the RBS
AWG: Art Workers’ Guild
Buckman, 2006: David Buckman, Artists in Britain since 1945 (2 vols: A–L, M–Z), Bristol, 2006
FRBS: Fellow of the RBS
FRIBA: Fellow of the RIBA
FRSS: Fellow of the Royal Society of Sculptors
FSA: Fellow of the Society of Arts
ILN: Illustrated London News
James, 1970: Duncan James, ‘Foundries’, Arts Review, 13 February 1970, pp. 70–71, 87
LCC: London County Council
Mapping Sculpture: Mapping the practice and profession of sculpture in Britain and Ireland 1851–1951, University of Glasgow History of Art and HATII, online database 2011
NPG British bronze sculpture founders: National Portrait Gallery – British bronze sculpture founders and plaster figure makers, 1800-1980
ODNB: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
PRA: President of the Royal Academy of Arts
PRBS: President of the RBS
RA: Royal Academy of Arts
RBS: Royal Society of British Sculptors – from 2003, the Royal British Society of Sculptors (from 2017, the Royal Society of Sculptors [RSS])
RCA: Royal College of Art
RIBA: Royal Institute of British Architects
Roscoe et al, 2009: Roscoe, I., with E. Hardy and M.G. Sullivan, A Biographical Dictionary of Sculptors in Britain 1660–1851, New Haven
and London, 2009
RSA: Royal Scottish Academy
Seddon et al: Jill Seddon, Peter Seddon and Anthony McIntosh, Public Sculpture of Sussex, Liverpool, 2014
V&A: Victoria and Albert Museum
Welsh Historical Sculpture: Welsh Historical Sculpture presented to the City of Cardiff by Lord Rhondda of Llanwern … on the 27th October 1916,
Cardiff, 1916


Lambeth School of Art was founded in 1854; became South London Technical School of Art in 1879; City and Guilds of London Art School in 1937
National Art Training School, 1853–96, was founded as the Government School of Design in 1837; informally known as South Kensington School of Art throughout the 19th century; became Royal College of Art in 1896

A & A Sculpture Casting Ltd / AB Fine Art Foundry Ltd

Bronze foundry specialising in lost wax, based in the East End of London, established in 1977 by Henry (‘Ab’) Abercrombie and Andy Elton as A&A Sculpture Casting Ltd. Elton left in 1992 and the business continued under Abercrombie as AB Fine Art Foundry Ltd. Public sculptures include Barry Flanagan’s Leaping Hare on Crescent and Bell (Broadgate Square, City of London, 1988); Dhruva Mistry’s River and Youth (Victoria Square, Birmingham, 1993); Stephen Hicklin’s George Stephenson (Chesterfield, Derbyshire, 2005); Graham Ibbeson’s Eric Morecambe (Morecambe, Cumbria, 2000), Laurel and Hardy (Ulverston, Cumbria, 2009), Harold (‘Dickie’) Bird (Barnsley, S. Yorks, 2009), and Fred Truman (Skipton, N. Yorks, 2010); and Gillian Wearing’s Millicent Fawcett (Parliament Square, London, 2018). Other clients include Antony Gormley, Anish Kapoor, Michael Sandle, William Turnbull and Rachel Whiteread.

Sources: AB Fine Art Foundry Ltd website; NPG British bronze sculpture founders website

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Ivor Abrahams (1935–2015)

Sculptor, ceramicist, painter, collagist, printmaker and film-maker. Abrahams studied at St Martin’s School of Art, 1952–53, under Anthony Caro, and was apprenticed to the Fiorini Art Bronze Foundry, while studying at Camberwell School of Arts of Crafts, 1954–57, under Karl Vogel and Martin Bloch. After working as a display artist for Adel Rootstein in the late ‘50s, Abrahams taught sculpture as a visiting lecturer, 1960–70, at Birmingham, Coventry, Hull and Goldsmiths’ schools of art. He was selected, on Eduardo Paolozzi’s recommendation, for the seminal 1961 show ‘26 Young Sculptors’ at the ICA. Abrahams had his first solo exhibition at Gallery One, London, 1962, his first overseas exhibition at the Richard Feigen Gallery, New York, 1970, and established an international reputation with his exhibition at the Kölnischer Kunstverein, 1973. He had retrospectives at the Bernard Jacobson Gallery, 1955, and the Yorkshire Sculpture Park, 1984. In 2008, the Henry Moore Institute staged the critically acclaimed exhibition of his early work, ‘By Leafy Ways’. He was elected ARA 1989, RA 1991 and Senior RA 2010; and was RA Professor of Sculpture 2007–10. Abrahams worked in a wide variety of materials, ranging from flock fibre to latex to bronze. His subjects, always figurative, include the human figure, giant owls, domestic gardens, and, from the 1990s, the ‘post-Cubist architectural structures’, exemplified by Head of the Stairs. His work features in public collections including the Tate; V&A; Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris; and Metropolitan Museum, New York.

Sources: Buckman, D., Artists in Britain since 1945 (2 vols: A–L, M–Z), Bristol, 2006; Lambirth, A., Eden and Other Suburbs. The Life and Works of Ivor Abrahams, Bristol, 2012; McEwen, J., ‘Ivor Abrahams: Maverick artist …’, 1 February 2015, The Independent online; Royal Academy of Arts website; ‘Ivor Abrahams, artist – obituary’, 19 January 2015, The Telegraph.

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Ivor Abrahams in his Studio (photo: © A.K.Purkiss)

George Gammon Adams (1821–1898)

Sculptor and medallist. At 16 was apprenticed to the chief engraver, William Wyon RA, at the Royal Mint. In 1840, he entered the RA Schools, giving his address as 1 South Place, Pimlico; in the same year he won a silver medal for a head, Melpomene. In 1846 he briefly studied under John Gibson in Rome. Returning to England the following year, he won the RA gold medal for his group, Murder of the Innocents (engraving in ILN, 18 December 1847, p. 400), which he also showed at the Great Exhibition of 1851. He established his reputation as a medallist with his design for the reverse of the Great Exhibition’s Juror’s medal. In 1852, Adams took the death mask of the Duke of Wellington, the marble bust he executed from it being highly regarded by the Duke’s heirs. Critical responses to his portrait busts and statues were wildly variable, even within the same magazine. In 1858, the Art Journal (p. 252) considered that Adams’s statue of General Charles Napier, 1856, Trafalgar Square, warranted a full-page engraving, commending it as a ‘faithful and characteristic representation … a bold, animated copy of a bold, lion-hearted and generous soldier’ and yet, four years later, damned the statue as ‘perhaps the worst piece of sculpture in England’ (1862, p. 98). Only his statue of Hugh McNeile, Dean of Ripon, 1870, for St George’s Hall, Liverpool, met with universal approbation, the Daily Post (15 December 1870) considering it the hall’s ‘one good statue’. Sadly, Adams’s brief obituary in the Athenaeum (12 December 1898, p. 350) remembered only the brickbats hurled at the Napier statue. Adams was a member of the Institute of British Sculptors from c.1860 and was elected FSA in 1869. He lived and worked, c.1853–90, at 126 Sloane Street, Chelsea.

Sources: Mapping Sculpture; Roscoe, I., et al, A Biographical Dictionary of Sculptors in Britain 1660–1851, New Haven and London, 2009.

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John Adams Acton (also Adams-Acton) (1830–1910)

Sculptor. Born John Adams, he had added Acton to his surname by 1864 presumably to distinguish himself from two similarly named painters then showing at the RA. At first, he seems to have signed his works only in the unhyphenated form (e.g., Pharaoh’s Daughter, 1865, Russell-Cotes Museum, Bournemouth) but by 1869 at the latest was sometimes using a hyphen (e.g., bust of W.E. Gladstone, 1869, Reform Club). He trained under Timothy Butler then Matthew Noble before attending the RA Schools, 1853–58, where he was awarded silver medals in the antique school (1853) and life school (1854), a gold medal for a historical group in the round (1855), and the travelling studentship (1858) for his group Orestes and Pylades (engr. in ILN, 4 September 1858, p. 222). He went to Rome and stayed until 1865, studying under John Gibson, who admired his ability as a portraitist; among the many tourists Gibson referred to him for commissions was W.E. Gladstone who, in addition to sitting for a number of portrait busts and statues, became Adams Acton’s patron and a family friend. He is known to have sourced his own marble at the Carrara quarries, an example being for his 1870 statue of Gladstone for St George’s Hall, Liverpool. He married in 1875 and in 1876 he and his wife went to India, remaining for eight months, during which time he set up a busy studio in Bombay (Mumbai); he continued to receive commissions from India throughout his life. Important works include a second statue of Gladstone for Blackburn (1899), statues of Titus Salt for Bradford (1874) and Queen Victoria for Kingston, Jamaica, and the Bahamas; and monuments to Bishop Waldegrave for Carlisle Cathedral (1872), John and Charles Wesley for Westminster Abbey (1876), George Cruikshank for St Paul’s Cathedral (1881) and, his final work, Cardinal Manning for Westminster Cathedral (unveiled in the year of his death, 22 January 1910). Adams Acton was a regular exhibitor at the RA from 1854 to 1892.

Sources: Fryer, S.E., ‘Acton, John Adams- (1830–1910)’, rev. Anne MacPhee, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; ILN: (i) 21 May 1870, p. 529; (ii) 16 August 1873, pp. 153–54; (iii) 20 January 1877, p. 51; (iv) 10 September 1881, p. 257; (v) 5 November 1910, p. 692 (obit. with portrait photo); Mapping Sculpture; Stirling, A.M., Victorian Sidelights: From the Papers of the late Mrs Adams-Acton, London 1954; Times, 24 January 1910, p. 17.

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John Adams-Acton (photo: public domain)

Julian Phelps Allan (1892–1996)

Born Eva Dorothy Allan, she changed her name c.1929 on starting her career as a professional sculptor. Her reasons remain a source of speculation – that she hoped her work would be taken more seriously under a man’s name; that it was her way of asserting a lesbian identity; or that she renamed herself after Julian of Norwich, a female medieval English mystic, the latter suggestion perhaps the most feasible in light of her deep religious faith. Allan served in the army in both world wars, becoming a colonel in the Auxiliary Territorial Service and first president of its War Office Selection Board. She began training as an artist in the early 1920s, firstly at Westminster School of Art, then, 1922–25, at the RA Schools where she gained a Landseer scholarship in 1923 and the gold medal and travelling studentship in 1925. She showed frequently at the RA Summer Exhibitions 1925–49. In 1926, she studied with Libero Andreotti in Florence and, back in England, with Eric Gill. Allan’s interest in Romanesque and Byzantine art took her to France and Yugoslavia to study examples first-hand. She was elected ARBS 1937 and FRBS 1947. Her Mother and Child was illustrated in RBS. Modern British Sculpture (1939). Allan kept a studio for some years in Edinburgh, exhibiting irregularly at the Royal Scottish Academy, 1942–51, finally leaving Scotland c.1970. Registered blind by 1974, she later became deaf and spent her final years at Henley-on-Thames. The Tate has her bust, Marjorie (Chantrey Bequest 1929). Her most significant piece of public sculpture is the 6m-high Winged Victory in reconstituted concrete for St Dunstan’s Home for Blind Veterans, Ovingdean, East Sussex, 1938–39.

Sources: Barnes, R., The Art of Memory. Sculpture in the Cemeteries of London, Kirstead, Norfolk, 2016, p. 188; Buckman, D., Artists in Britain since 1945 (2 vols: A–L, M–Z), Bristol, 2006; Seddon, J., et al, Public Sculpture of Sussex, Liverpool, 2014, pp. 89–90; Mapping Sculpture; Tate.

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Hendrik Christian Andersen (1872–1940)

Norwegian-born sculptor. While Andersen and his two brothers were children, their family emigrated to Newport, Rhode Island, USA. The boys showed precocious artistic ability and had the good fortune to be educated at the expense of local philanthropists. Andersen continued his studies in France and Italy, living, by the late 1890s, in Rome where he was introduced to the writer Henry James. Beguiled by the attractive young sculptor – whom he believed to be a genius – James bought Andersen’s painted terracotta bust of a boy, Count Alberto Bevilacqua, bringing it back to his home, Lamb House (now NT), in Rye, East Sussex, where it remains. Andersen’s painter brother, Andreas, had married Olivia Cushing, a wealthy heiress with literary pretensions, and on his death in 1902, Andersen and Olivia decided to create a palace of the arts dedicated to Andreas’s memory. It was to be hung with her late husband’s paintings and peopled with Andersen’s statues; here also, Olivia’s plays would be performed with music by Arthur, the second of Hendrik’s brothers. In 1917, Olivia died leaving all her money to Andersen, who initiated the construction of the palace, Villa Helene in the Via Mancini, Rome, and spent the rest of his life working on a series of over-life-size, technically competent, but wildly kitsch statues for it. Andersen bequeathed the palace and its contents to the Italian government. The Hendrik Christian Andersen Museum, as it became, was finally inaugurated in 1999.

Sources: Morris, R.C., ‘Henry James and an Eccentric Sculptor’s Fantasies’, New York Times, 3 June 2000; Wikipedia

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Arch Bronze Ltd

Established in 1986 at Putney, South London, by Chris Nash and Gabrielle Brisbane. The foundry’s website lists a wide range of services, including casting in bronze, aluminium and other non-ferrous alloys. Clients include Jake & Dinos Chapman, Nic Fiddian-Green, Maggi Hambling and Marc Quinn. Public sculptures include Dhruva Mistry’s Diagram of an Object, 1990, in front of the Hunterian Art Gallery, Glasgow; Eduardo Paolozzi’s Parthenope and Egeria, 1997, in front of the Michael Swann Building, Edinburgh; Andrew Logan’s Pegasus, 2001, Scott’s Green Island, Dudley; and Charlie Mackesey’s Return of the Prodigal, 2005, Brompton Road, South Kensington.

Sources: Arch Bronze Ltd website; NPG British bronze sculpture founders website.

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Henry Hugh Armstead (1828–1905)

Sculptor, metalworker and illustrator born in London. Armstead first worked for his father as a heraldic chaser and aged about 13 was sent to the Government School of Design, Somerset House. In 1847 he entered the RA Schools and at about the same time trained in the studio of Edward Hodges Baily. He won prizes from the Art Union, in 1849 for a relief, The Death of Boadicea, and in 1851 for a statuette, Satan dismayed; both were published in small bronze editions. In his early career he worked for the silversmiths Hunt & Roskell, his most important work in their employment being a silver- and gold-damascened steel shield presented to Sir James Outram in 1862 (on long loan to the V&A). Armstead’s switch to sculpture as his principal occupation has been attributed both to the paucity of critical response to his Outram Shield at that year’s International and RA exhibitions and also to the influence of Sir George Gilbert Scott who, struck by the high quality of Armstead’s work, began employing him as an architectural sculptor, most notably on his Albert Memorial Remorse (1862–72) and Colonial (now Foreign and Commonwealth) Office building (1873–74). It was the scale of Armstead’s works on these projects that necessitated his move in c.1868 to larger premises, at Bridge Place, Eccleston Bridge, Pimlico. Armstead also executed several funerary monuments to Scott’s designs, including those for Dean Howard, 1872, and Archdeacon Moore, 1879 (both Lichfield Cathedral) and Bishop Wilberforce, d. 1873 (Winchester Cathedral). Armstead’s independent commissions include statues of George Edmund Street (1886, Royal Courts of Justice) and Thomas Waghorn (1888, Chatham). His marble figure of Lady Macbeth, entitled Remorse (1903; Chantrey Bequest) is in the Tate. Armstead exhibited at the RA from 1851, was elected ARA and began teaching in the RA Schools in 1875, and was elected RA in 1879. Four large albums of his sketches are preserved in the RA archives. Edmund Gosse and M.H. Spielmann both acknowledged the significant impact that Armstead’s craftsmanship and naturalistic approach to sculpture exerted on the younger generation of the New Sculpture movement.

Sources: Armstrong, W., ‘Armstead, Henry Hugh (1828–1905)’, rev. E. Hardy, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; Mapping Sculpture; Roscoe, I., et al, A Biographical Dictionary of Sculptors in Britain 1660–1851, New Haven and London, 2009.

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Robert Colton, Henry Hugh Armstead, 1902, bronze (photo:© Royal Academy of Arts, London; photographer: Paul Highnam)

Arthur Ashpitel (1807–1869)

Architect and antiquary. He was trained by his father, the architect William Hurst Ashpitel, and began working on his own account in 1842. His two most important buildings are the churches of St. John’s, Blackheath, and St. Barnabas, Homerton. In 1845, with David Roberts RA as his travelling companion, he went to Rome, remaining there for several years. He exhibited two of his Roman drawings at the RA, Ancient Rome, 1858, no. 1008, and Modern Rome, 1859, no. 1051 (now V&A 237-1869 and 238-1869). He was in partnership with John Whichcord II, 1850–55. Ashpitel’s monument designs include Nicholas Ridley, 1857, St Martin’s, Herne, Kent (carved by Seale) and Peter Borthwick, c.1867, Brompton Cemetery (bronze figures by Brucciani stolen; stone replacements now headless; monument described and illustrated in Builder, 5 January 1867, pp. 9, 10).

Sources: Builder, 30 January 1869, p. 81 (obit.); Dictionary of National Biography 1855-1900,; Newman, J., Kent: North East and East (Buildings of England), New Haven and London, 2013, p. 397; ‘Tomb of Peter Borthwick and family’,Historic England official list entry ; Wikipedia.

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(Aubrey) Eric (Stacy) Aumonier (1899–1974)

Sculptor, born at Northwood, Middlesex, of Huguenot descent. Aumonier’s father and grandfather, both named William, were also sculptors. His grandfather (‘William I’) founded William Aumonier & Son, specialising in architectural sculpture, in 1876 (for Aumonier’s father, ‘William II’, see below). Aumonier studied at Central School of Arts and Crafts, and although he joined the family firm in the early 1920s he was working independently by the end of that decade. He was a member of the AWG from 1950. His major commissions include the South Wind relief on the London Underground Headquarters, St James’s Park, c.1929; two terracotta panels on East Sheen cinema, 1930; two plaster reliefs, Industries of the British Isles and British Empire Industries, for the foyer of the Daily Express building, Fleet Street, 1932; a bas relief, Hygieia and the Nine Muses, 1933, for Hall, Easton and Robertson’s Nurses’ Home at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Sick Children; the Royal Arms for the British Pavilion at the New York World’s Fair, 1939; The Archer, a figure in lead and wood for the roof of East Finchley Underground Station, 1939–40; the White Knight for the Festival of Britain, South Bank, 1951; and giant nursery rhyme figures for the Food Fair, Olympia, 1960. Aumonier also produced set work for the cinema, most memorably for the 1946 Powell and Pressburger film A Matter of Life and Death, in which he created a giant moving staircase with figures from history moving towards heaven. He and his wife emigrated to New Zealand in the early 1960s and he gave up sculpture due to arthritis in 1968.

Sources: Buckman, D., Artists in Britain since 1945 (2 vols: A–L, M–Z), Bristol, 2006; Mapping Sculpture.

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Richard Austin

Sculptor based in Wadebridge, Cornwall, from which he runs public workshops for a few months of each year. His hyper-real life-size Invisible Sleeper was commissioned by St Petroc’s Society, Cornwall, to highlight homelessness in the county and was temporarily installed for a special service in Truro cathedral on 9 July 2011 to mark the Society’s 25th anniversary. The popular success of Austin’s statue of John Clare (2016) for Northampton Borough Council led to their commissioning from him five more cold cast bronze statues for the Guildhall in 2017: Malcolm Arnold, Francis Crick, Edgar Mobbs, Walter Tull, and Lady Wantage. His Town-Crier (2013) is in Liskeard Museum, Cornwall, and his Miner at the Museum of Dartmoor Life, Okehampton, Devon.

Sources: Richard Austin’s Sculpture Workshop; Cornwall Artists; ‘Statues inspired by local history commissioned for Northampton’, 3 July 2017, Northampton Borough Council.

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Stanley Nicholson Babb (1874–1957)

Sculptor, born at Plymouth, where he studied at the local school of art before going on to the RCA and the RA Schools, winning, in 1901, the RA Gold Medal and Travelling Scholarship. He showed at the RA, 1898–1945; the RSA, 1913, 1917 and 1924; and the Royal Glasgow Institute of Fine Art, 1906–40. In 1905 he became a member of the RBS. His Jupiter and the Princess of Phoenicia and his Garden Fountain are illustrated in RBS Modern British Sculpture (1939, pls. 8, 9). For Aston Webb’s V&A façade, he carved figures of Thomas Gainsborough and George Romney, 1905. His other public commissions include the South African War Memorial for Grahamstown, South Africa, 1906; a Memorial Tablet to Captain Scott and his companions, St Paul’s Cathedral, London, 1915; and sculpture for First World War memorials at Tunbridge Wells and Bridlington, and for Coutts and Co, Holborn, London.

Sources: Buckman, D., Artists in Britain since 1945 (2 vols: A–L, M–Z), Bristol, 2006; Graves, A., The Royal Academy of Arts: a Complete Dictionary of Contributors and their Works from its Foundation in 1769 to 1904, London, 1905–6 (8 vols); Mapping Sculpture; Victorian Web.

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Fred Roe, Stanley Nicholson Babb, 1920-29, pencil (photo: © National Portrait Gallery, London)

Percival Ball (1845–1900)

Sculptor born in Westminster. He was a pupil of Henry Weekes. In 1863, shortly before Ball entered the RA Schools, the head of Lambeth School of Art, John Sparkes, appointed him pupil-teacher in charge of his modelling class. During Ball’s time there, Doulton and Co commissioned the school to produce a series of terracotta heads (destroyed in the early 1950s) for the pediment over the main entrance to its Lambeth potteries building: Sparkes designed the heads, allotting the modelling to Ball (with assistance from George Tinworth, then a promising young student). Doulton also produced the two terracotta figure groups representing Instruction that Ball designed for the pediment of the V&A Museum lecture theatre in 1868. Ball enjoyed considerable success at the RA Schools, in 1865 winning its gold medal and scholarship of £25 for the best historical group in sculpture, as well as a silver medal for a model from life. From 1865 to 1882, he showed 24 pieces at the RA summer exhibitions, comprising mostly portrait busts, with some statuettes, reliefs and fancy pieces. In c.1870, he went to Paris and Munich and lastly to Rome, where he lived and worked for about eight years. In 1884, for health reasons (he suffered from asthma and bronchitis) he emigrated to Australia where he established a successful working practice. In 1898, he was commissioned to produce a relief panel, Phyrne before Praxiteles, for the Art Gallery of New South Wales and was sent to London to superintend its casting in bronze at J.W. Singer & Sons. Tragically, his poor health was exacerbated by the London winter and Ball died there of heart failure on 4 April 1903. The casting of his panel was completed after his death and installed on the front of the gallery building in 1903.

Sources: Beattie, S., The New Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1983, p. 18; Cavanagh, T., 2007, Public Sculpture of South London, Liverpool, p. 355; Mapping Sculpture; Scarlett, K., ‘Ball, Percival (1845–1900)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography.

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A.W. Banks

Architectural sculptor. He carved figurative sculptures for the churches of St Katherine, Westway and Primula Street, Hammersmith, for J.R. Atkinson, 1958–59, and St Thomas, Kensal Road, for Romilly Craze, 1967.

Source: Cherry, B., and N. Pevsner, London 3: North West (The Buildings of England), London, 1991.

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Tomás Bañuelos (b. 1958)

Sculptor born in Fabero in the province of León in Spain. He trained in the workshop of Higinio Vázquez in Madrid and later became Professor of Sculpture at the Faculty of Fine Arts in the Complutense University of Madrid. He retains a workshop in Fabero. He and a team of assistants produced the over 100 sculptures, paintings and sketches used as props for the Spanish director, Fernando Trueba’s, 2012 French-language film, L’artiste et son modèle. His statue of Christopher Columbus, 1992, is in Belgrave Square.

Sources: ‘Bañuelos Ramón, Tomás – Profesor titular escuela universitaria’, Universidad Complutense Madrid; Silván, V., ‘Tomás Bañuelos, un escultor de película’, 1 August 2011, El Mundo.

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Heinrich Baucke (1875–1915)

German sculptor, mainly of portrait statues and busts in a neo-baroque style. He was born in Düsseldorf and studied, 1891–1900, in the city’s academy of fine art under Karl Janssen. Baucke’s first success was The Victorious Boxer, a bronze statuette, 1897, now in the Kunsthalle, Düsseldorf. In 1903, he moved to Berlin and won several commissions from Kaiser Wilhelm II, including, for the terrace of the pleasure garden of the royal palace at Berlin, the statue of Wilhelm III. In 1907, the Kaiser presented a replica of the statue, via his cousin King Edward VII, to the people of Britain; this was erected outside Kensington Palace. Other significant commissions include a bust of Wilhelm I (1900) for his monument at Rotthausen; and statues of The Electress Louise Henriette of Orange-Nassau (1904), Moers castle, and King Frederick I of Prussia and Queen Sophie Charlotte (1909), Charlottenburg Gate, Berlin. He also executed marble busts of Helmuth von Moltke and Otto von Bismarck (Kaiser Wilhelm Museum, Krefeld). Baucke died on 12 or 13 April 1915 in Ratingen.

Sources: Oxford Art Online – Benezit Dictionary of Artists; Wikipedia (German).

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Frank Baxter (1865–1933)

Sculptor born in Sutton, Lancashire. After attending Eton College, he began working as a manager in the family chemical works. At some date in the 1890s, having decided to become a sculptor, he went to Paris and studied with Denis Puech and Jean-Auguste Dampt. Baxter and his wife and son are recorded as living in Victoria Road, Kensington, from c.1900 to c.1922. He exhibited at the RA (5 times), the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, and the Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts. At the Salon des Artistes Français in Paris in 1926, he exhibited American Bison. The National Portrait Gallery has his bust of James Gairdner (plaster, 1900; bronze, 1924).

Sources: Mapping Sculpture; Oxford Art Online – Benezit Dictionary of Artists.

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Paolo Valentino Bernini (1648–1728)

Sculptor. A son of Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini, he remained in his father’s workshop until the latter’s death in 1680. In 1665, when Giovanni was summoned to Paris to work for Louis XIV, Paolo accompanied him, and while there – and with some help from his father – executed a low relief in marble, The Infant Jesus with the Instruments of the Passion (Louvre). He worked with his father on one of the Angel statues on the Ponte Sant’Angelo in Rome and executed the matching memorials to the da Silva family on the side walls of his father’s Cappella da Silva in the church of Sant’ Isidoro a Capo le Case, Rome. The design of the Monument to Lady Jane Cheyne, 1670–72, Chelsea Old Church, is attributed to him. Paolo was admitted to membership of Accademia di San Luca in 1672.

Sources: Hildburgh, W.L., ‘A Signed Marble Cupid Perhaps by Paolo Valentino Bernini’, Burlington Magazine, November 1942, pp. 280, 282–84; Oxford Art Online – Benezit Dictionary of Artists.

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Leslie Cubitt Bevis (1892–1984)

Sculptor and teacher. He was born in Maidstone, Kent, and died in Croydon. In the First World War, he joined the 28th London Regiment (Artists’ Rifles) as a private; in July 1917, he was commissioned as a temporary lieutenant in the 2nd Highland Light Infantry and was subsequently wounded. In the Second World War, he was briefly an officer in the RAF, before transferring to the army where he specialised in camouflage in the Western Desert of North Africa. Between the wars, he taught at Bedford School and following the second, at several art schools, including Camberwell, Wimbledon and St Martin’s. For some years from 1957, he occupied a studio in the Buddhist Society building at 58 Eccleston Square, Pimlico, although according to his son he was never a Buddhist, simply ‘straight Church of England’. Bevis showed (mainly portrait heads and busts) at the RA from 1946 to 1966. His bust of Hugh Gaitskell, 1963, is in the collection of the National Portrait Gallery and his statue of Thomas More, 1967–69, outside Chelsea Old Church, Cheyne Walk.

Sources: Buckman, D., Artists in Britain since 1945 (2 vols: A–L, M–Z), Bristol, 2006; Mapping Sculpture.

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George Frederick Bodley (1827–1907)

Architect and designer of Scottish descent born in Hull. He was the pupil of, and then assistant to, Sir George Gilbert Scott. Bodley was primarily a church architect, working in the Gothic style, firstly drawing influence from the French C13, then, from the late 1860s, English Decorated Gothic of the first half of C14; he also designed secular buildings in a Queen Anne style. For his earliest works – for example, All Saints, Selsley, Gloucestershire (designed 1858), described as ‘the finest achievement of his early years’ (Michael Hall, ODNB) – he employed the firm of Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co for all the stained glass and decorations. During the 1870s, Bodley parted company with the firm in a drive to retain tighter personal control across all aspects of his buildings’ designs, thereafter frequently using, e.g., Rattee & Kett for woodwork, Barkentin & Krall for metalwork, and Burlison & Grylls for stained glass. In 1869, he went into an informal partnership with Thomas Garner. The partnership’s best-known designs include St Augustine, Pendlebury, Manchester (designed 1870) and Holy Angels, Hoar Cross, Staffordshire (designed 1871–72). The partnership was amicably dissolved in 1897, following Garner’s conversion to Roman Catholicism. Bodley’s final commission was for the Episcopal Cathedral, Washington, DC (designs prepared 1906–07, construction begun 1910, construction completed 1990). Bodley also designed wallpaper, textiles, vestments, and ecclesiastical fittings and furniture, for the production of which in 1874 he, Garner and George Gilbert Scott jnr established Watts & Co. Bodley was elected ARA in 1882 and RA in 1902, and was awarded the RIBA Gold Medal in 1899. Bodley’s pupils include C.R. Ashbee, Sir Ninian Comper and Edward Warren. Michael Hall (ODNB) described Bodley as ‘unquestionably the most influential architect at work in the Anglican church during the last third of the nineteenth century’.

Sources: Hall, M., ‘Bodley, George Frederick (1827–1907)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford, 2004; Hall, M., George Frederick Bodley and the later Gothic Revival in Britain and America, New Haven and London, 2014.

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Sir Joseph Edgar Boehm (1834–90)

Sculptor, born in Vienna, the son of Josef Daniel Böhm, a Hungarian medallist and director of the Imperial Mint. The young Boehm travelled frequently with his father, visiting England where he was much impressed with the Parthenon sculptures and Italy where he admired Renaissance portrait statues. He spent three years in Paris, marrying an Englishwoman there in 1860 and converting to Protestantism. In 1862, he settled in London and in 1865 became naturalised. Among those attracted to his portrait busts and statuettes, and in particular his equine subjects, was Queen Victoria, who in 1869 appointed him sculptor tutor to Princess Louise and awarded him three commissions, including a colossal marble statue of herself enthroned for Windsor Castle. Boehm was elected ARA in 1878 and RA in 1882, was elected a member of the Academy of Florence in 1875 and of Rome in 1880, and was appointed baronet in 1889. Boehm’s realistic style, with its spirited modelling and anatomical accuracy, though popular with the public was dismissed by those critics who expected ‘a finer, more idealised, more classicising touch’. Just as there is general agreement that Boehm’s statue of Thomas Carlyle, 1882, Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, is among his finest works, so is there that his Duke of Wellington, 1889, Hyde Park Corner, is among his least successful, The Times, echoing the thoughts of many critics, admiring the quality of its portraiture but adjudging the work as a whole ‘a failure from the point of view of design, the four soldiers at the base being mere excrescences, and forming no part of the pedestal’. Other important commissions include John Bunyan, 1872–74, Bedford; Sir John Burgoyne, 1875–77, Waterloo Place; William Tyndale, 1881–84, Victoria Embankment Gardens; Sir Francis Drake, 1882–84, Plymouth; Charles Darwin, 1885, Natural History Museum, and Queen Victoria, 1887, Castle Hill, Windsor. Boehm lived and worked in Kensington for most of his residence in England: in 1864 he was at 28 Brompton Crescent; from 1865 to 1869, at 13 Sumner Place (this may have been a studio address); and by 1870, at 34 Onslow Square (Marochetti’s former home). From 1873 until his death, he worked from a studio at The Avenue (Sydney Close), 76 Fulham Road, and from 1884, lived in a house designed for him at 25 Wetherby Gardens. Boehm died suddenly in his studio one evening, possibly from a heart attack, and was either with Princess Louise at the time, or discovered by her after, circumstances which led the contemporary press to conclude the couple had been having an affair. Working at the time in an adjacent studio was Alfred Gilbert, a former assistant of Boehm’s, who would go on to complete many of Boehm’s unfinished works.

Sources: The Athenaeum, 20 December 1890, p. 861; Pall Mall Gazette, 13 December 1890, p. 4; Royal Academy Summer Exhibition: a chronicle, 1769-2018; Saturday Review, 20 December 1890, p. 704; The Spectator, 20 December 1890, pp. 900–01; Stocker, S., ‘Boehm, Sir (Joseph) Edgar, baronet (1834–1890)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; The Times, 13 December 1890, p. 9.

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Joseph Edgar Boehm, Ralph Winwood Robinson C. Whittingham & Co., c.1889, published 1892, platinum print, (photo: © National Portrait Gallery, London).

Gilbert Dutson Boulton (1865–1936)

Sculptor born in Worcestershire. His father, Richard Lockwood Boulton (c.1832–1905) established a successful sculpture and architectural carving business in Cheltenham in 1870/71. Gilbert and his brothers, Lockwood (1857–1927), Thomas (1860–1932) and Frank (c.1877–?) worked for their father and took over the running of the firm on his retirement in 1893; the firm continued until at least 1971. Gilbert Boulton’s commissions include figure carvings at St Cuthbert’s, Philbeach Gardens, Kensington, 1896–1908; the carving of Temple Moore’s rood screen, 1912, in St Mary the Virgin, Lowgate, Hull; and a stone figure of St George for Bodley & Hare’s war memorial at Walford, Ross on Wye, Herefordshire (dedicated 1925; listed Grade II 1987).

Sources: Mapping Sculpture; various.

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Frank Bowcher (or Boucher) (1864–1938)

Medallist, designer of seals, and sculptor, born in London. His father, Henry, was an etcher, draughtsman and cartoonist and his brother, Alfred William (1863–1890), a sculptor. Boucher entered the National Art Training School, South Kensington, c.1881, and worked in the studio of Edward Onslow Ford. He was awarded silver medals at the Paris Universal Exhibition, 1900, and at the Brussels Universal Exhibition, 1910. He was, in 1905, a founder member of the RBS. He executed marble portrait busts for a number of prestigious clients including the Duke and Duchess of Connaught, the Earl and Countess of Derby and the Maharaja Gaekwar of Baroda, but it was as a medallist and designer of seals that he chiefly became known. He designed the silver seals for King Edward VII and King George V; decorations (Order of Merit) for Baroda State, India; the Osler Memorial Medal for the University of Oxford; and medals for the RCA, Royal College of Science and Eton College. He also designed and executed silver statuettes for the opening of the Sennar Dam, Sudan, and restored antique bronzes for the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. He was a regular exhibitor at the RA.

Source: The Times, 8 December 1938, p. 18.

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Allister Bowtell (1940–2006)

Sculptor, film designer and model maker, born in Sheen, Surrey, and educated at King’s College school, Wimbledon. After two years as a trainee cameraman for Rediffusion television, in 1961 he entered Chelsea Art School as a mature student, leaving in protest when the school lost its Dip AD sculpture accreditation. Making use of his television contacts, he obtained employment as a model maker, in 1966 making the models for Tweedledum and Tweedledee in Jonathan Miller’s adaptation of Alice in Wonderland and for the first appearance of the cybermen in Doctor Who (both BBC). He was a part-time lecturer at Wimbledon School of Art, 1966–70, and the London College of Printing, 1974–78. When computer simulation reduced the demand for television props he turned to sculpture, working in a multiplicity of materials. He secured many private and public commissions, including Two Pupils, 2003, King’s Road, Chelsea. He was a member of the London Sketch Club and Chelsea Arts Club (chairman, 1997–2000). A keen oarsman, he rowed for the Arts Club and was vice-president of Vesta Rowing Club, near his home at Putney. In 2001, he was elected to the RBS. He died of prostate cancer at the age of 66.

Source: The Guardian online, 13 October 2006 (obit.).

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Sidney Nicholson Boyes (b. c.1878; active 1901–31)

Sculptor born in Southampton, Hampshire. In 1902, he was awarded a free studentship by the Board of Education to study at Southampton School of Art for two years. He afterwards attended the RCA, his contribution to an exercise in composition, a decorative panel entitled Music, appearing in the Art & Crafts Magazine, 1904. In the following year, Boyes was one of four students selected by Edouard Lantéri to work on a figure for Aston Webb’s new façade for the V&A Museum, Boyes being allotted Lord Leighton. About this time, he moved to Aberdeen to take up a teaching post at Gray’s School of Art. While in Aberdeen, he was commissioned to design and produce the leopard finials and a bronze relief of personifications of trades, finance, fishing, shipbuilding, engineering and agriculture for the city’s Union Bridge (1905–08). He showed at the Aberdeen Artists’ Society Exhibition of Works of Modern Artists in 1906 and 1908 and the RSA in 1907. By 1910, he was back in London, initially working from 7 Wentworth Studios, Manresa Road, Chelsea. From this year until 1931, he showed 11 works – busts and statuettes – at the RA. He was a member of the RBS from 1908 until his resignation in 1928 and, from 1916 to 1926, taught modelling at the Central School of Arts and Crafts.

Sources: ‘Exhibition of Students’ Work at the Royal College of Art. Part 2. Awards’, Arts & Crafts Magazine, 1904; Mapping Sculpture; Physick, J., The Victoria and Albert Museum: The History of its Building, London, 1982; Royal Academy Exhibitors 1905–1970. A dictionary of artists and their work in the Summer Exhibitions of the Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1973.

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John Broad (c.1858–1919)

Modeller, based in Wandsworth, principally producing figures, monuments and terracotta ware. He joined Doulton & Co in 1873, firstly as an assistant to George Tinworth, remaining there throughout his working life. He also studied at Lambeth School of Art and afterwards the RA Schools, in 1882 winning a silver medal for a model of a figure from the life. In 1888, he modelled an India group and a Queen Victoria statue for Doulton’s Victoria Fountain in Glasgow. When in 1894 the latter was destroyed by lightning, Henry Doulton, at his own expense, had Broad make a new model for Glasgow Corporation. Whereas the first had been a unique cast, this second was a multiple edition, with one cast going up outside Doulton’s Lambeth offices (removed 1910 to make way for road alterations and subsequently broken up) and another at Gravesend. Also for Doulton were his statues of General Gordon, 1893, Gravesend, and Queen Victoria, 1897–98, for Gravesend and 1899 for Albert Embankment, London (destroyed); decorative reliefs, including spandrels of ‘Night’ and ‘Day’, over the entrance of R.W. Edis’s Hotel Great Central (now The Landmark), Marylebone Road, 1897–99; and the tympanum relief for Harrods, c.1905, Brompton Road. Examples of his works were shown at Arts and Crafts exhibitions, London, 1890, 1891 and 1910, the Chicago World Fair, 1893, and the RA, 1890–1900.

Sources: Bergesen, V., Encyclopaedia of British Art Pottery 1870–1920 (ed. G.A. Godden), London, 1991; Eyles, D., The Lambeth Doulton Wares (rev. L. Irvine), Shepton Beauchamp, Somerset, 2002; Graves, A., The Royal Academy of Arts: a Complete Dictionary of Contributors and their Works from its Foundation in 1769 to 1904, London, 1905–06 (8 vols); McKenzie, R., Public Sculpture of Glasgow, Liverpool, 2002; Mapping Sculpture; Tinworth, G. (handwritten draft for an autobiography), c.1911, Southwark Local Studies Library (920 TIN); Ward-Jackson, P., Public Sculpture of the City of London, Liverpool, 2003; Wyke, T., Public Sculpture of Greater Manchester, Liverpool, 2004.

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Abraham Broadbent (1868–1919)

Architectural sculptor born in Shipley, Yorkshire, resident in London from c.1895. Both his father, William P. Broadbent, and brother, Samuel, were stonemasons. Broadbent studied at the South London Technical School of Art and in 1895 was awarded the Sculpture Studentship (£50 per annum for two years). By 1912, W.S. Frith could say that Broadbent had ‘arrived at the acknowledged position of being one of our first architectural sculptors’. Writing in 1921, Kineton Parkes listed him among the best sculptors of his generation. For Aston Webb, he carved relief figures of Huntington Shaw and Thomas Tompion, 1905, for the V&A’s Exhibition Road frontage. He also carved the decorative programme for the Eton School Hall (1904–08) and a sculpture called The White Man’s Burden (1913) for the Union Government Building in Pretoria, South Africa. He was, until his death, a member of the AWG (from 1901) and RBS (from 1906). He exhibited at the RA from 1901 to 1919.

Sources: Mapping Sculpture; Parkes, K., Sculpture of To-Day, vol. 1, 1921; Ward-Jackson, P., Public Sculpture of the City of London, Liverpool, 2003.

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Bronze Age Sculpture Casting Foundry Ltd

Foundry set up in Limehouse Basin in London’s East End in 1989 by New Zealand-born sculptor Mark Kennedy. Originally intending to cast only his own sculptures, he began taking on work from other sculptors, gradually building up a large client list, so that by 2002 he was employing about 30 people. The foundry specialises in lost wax casting of bronze and other non-ferrous metals. Public sculptures include Lawrence Holofcener’s Allies, 1995, Old Bond Street, London; Nicola Hicks’s Bettle, 2000, Anchor Square, Bristol; Les Johnson’s London Dockers, 2009, Royal Victoria Dock, East London; Tim Shaw’s The Drummer, 2011, Truro, Cornwall; Douglas Jenning’s Squadron Leader Mahinder Singh Pujji DFC, 2014, Gravesend, Kent; Allan Sly’s Sir Alec Bedser, 2015, Woking, Surrey; and Hazel Reeves’s Sir Nigel Gresley, 2016, King’s Cross Station, London, and ‘Rise Up Women’ (Emmeline Pankhurst), 2018, Manchester. Other clients include Jane Ackroyd, Maurice Blik, Paul Day, Sean Hedges-Quinn, Sean Henry, Michael Sandle and André Wallace.

Sources: Bronze Age London website; NPG British bronze sculpture founders.

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Ford Madox Brown (1821–1893)

Painter and designer born at Calais, the son of a ship’s purser. Brown trained under Gustaf, Baron Wappers at Antwerp academy. In 1841, he married Elisabeth Bromley, a first cousin. The couple returned to England in 1844 and in 1845 travelled to Rome in an unsuccessful search for a cure for Elisabeth’s consumption; she died on the return journey in Paris in 1846. Despite Brown’s profound grief, the trip nevertheless exercised a lasting stylistic influence on his painting, having allowed him to see Italian Renaissance painting first-hand and to meet key members of the German Nazarene group living in Rome. Following his return to England, Brown was approached by the young Dante Gabriel Rossetti who had seen and admired his latest painting, Wycliffe (1847–48; Cartwright Hall, Bradford). Rossetti became Brown’s pupil and the two became lifelong friends; Rossetti modelled for the figure of Geoffrey Chaucer in Brown’s painting, Chaucer at the Court of Edward III (1846–51; Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney). Following Rossetti’s death, Brown designed and modelled the headstone, 1883–84, for his friend’s grave in the churchyard of All Saints, Birchington-on-Sea, Kent, and the bust for his memorial drinking fountain on Chelsea Embankment. Although Brown never became a member of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, he was sympathetic to their aims and closely associated with them. The theme of his first major painting, The Last of England (1852–55; Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery) was inspired by Pre-Raphaelite brother Thomas Woolner’s attempted emigration to Australia in 1852 and in 1874 his daughter, Emma Lucy, married Dante Gabriel’s brother, William Michael Rossetti. Brown’s association with Rossetti also led to his becoming a founder member of the firm of Rossetti’s friend William Morris, for whom he designed stained glass and furniture (see, for example, his Egyptian-style chair, 1860–61, V&A, no. W.13–1985).

Sources: Art Gallery NSW; Barringer, B., ‘Brown, Ford Madox (1821–1893)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; V&A Search the Collections.

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Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Ford Madox Brown, 31 Janauary 1867, pencil on paper (photo: public domain, via Wikimedia Commons)

Albert Bruce Joy (or Bruce-Joy) (1842–1924)

Sculptor, born in Dublin. He was educated at Becker’s grammar school, Offenbach, Germany; King’s College, London; and also in Paris. He went on to study art at the National Art Training School, South Kensington, and RA schools, completing his artistic education with three years in Rome. He spent four years working under J.H. Foley and, following the latter’s death in 1874, executed his master’s commission of a marble statue of Robert Graves, 1877, for the Royal College of Physicians, Dublin. Bruce Joy was elected ARHA (Associate of the Royal Hibernian Academy) in 1890 and RHA in 1893. He exhibited at the RA, London, from 1866. His ability to record his sitter’s likeness with remarkable accuracy made him a sought-after portraitist. His public statues include John Laird (1877) for Birkenhead; W.E. Gladstone (1882) for Bow Churchyard, London; John Bright (1891) and Oliver Heywood (1894) both for Albert Square, Manchester; and Alexander Balfour (1905), for St John’s Gardens, Liverpool.

Sources: Gleichen, E., London’s Open-Air Statuary, London, 1928; Mapping Sculpture; Murphy, P., Nineteenth-Century Irish Sculpture. Native Genius Reaffirmed, New Haven & London, 2010; Spielmann, M.H., British Sculpture and Sculptors of To-day, London, 1901; Who Was Who.

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Albert Bruce Joy, Done & Ball, albumen cabinet card, 1889-91 (photo:© National Portrait Gallery, London).

Andrew Burton (b. 1961)

Sculptor born in Kent. He attended Newcastle University, graduating with a first-class degree in fine art in 1983 and a master’s degree in 1986, after which he visited India on a British Academy Travelling Scholarship. In 1983, he won a prize for sculpture at the Tyne Tees Northern Open and in 1990 the McGrigor Donald Sculpture Prize. His public commissions include three bronzes (Lion; Elephant under a Moroccan Edifice; and Tipping off the World), 1990, for Gateshead Garden Festival (now in Newcastle Business Park); An Urban Elephant, 1991, for Stevenage Museum (Herts) Sculpture Trail; Durham Cow, 1997, for The Racecourse riverside path, Durham; Annunciation, 2000, for Holland Park; Cycle (aka Medieval Life), 2001, for Castle Hill Roundabout, Dudley; and Cook’s Earth, 2003, for James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough. He has exhibited internationally since 1990 and has undertaken both solo and collaborative projects in the UK, Netherlands, India, China and Korea; a strong theme in his work is the use of bricks and other retrieved material, emphasising the sculptural possibilities of everyday objects. Burton is Professor of Fine Art at Newcastle University, a Fellow of the RBS and a member of the International Academy of Ceramics. In 2015 he was awarded Gold Prize at the KOCEF Biennale for Ceramic Sculpture in South Korea. In a recent statement the sculptor said that his ‘specialism is in contemporary sculpture, particularly in sculpture situated in relation to ceramics, craft and architecture’.

Sources: Andrew Burton website; Buckman, D., Artists in Britain since 1945 (2 vols: A–L, M–Z), Bristol, 2006; Royal Society of Sculptors website.

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Timothy Butler (1806–1885)

Sculptor. In 1824 he was awarded a Silver Medal by the Society of Arts for a plaster model after the antique. By then he was already working in the studio of William Behnes and in 1825, on Behnes’ recommendation, he entered the RA Schools, winning the RA Silver Medal in 1827. Although Butler was chiefly known as a portrait sculptor, showing over one hundred busts at the RA, 1828–79, he was also responsible for creating the model for all the original Lion-head mooring ring supports along the Victoria and Albert Embankments and the two Chelsea Embankment Memorials, 1868–70, London. His marble bust of Dr Jacob Bell, 1863, is in the collection of the Royal Pharmaceutical Society and that of Hugh Falconer, 1866, the collection of the Royal Society; his marble statue of Richard Cobden, 1876, is in the Wool Exchange, Bradford, Yorks. John Adams Acton trained in Butler’s studio.

Sources: Roscoe, I., et al, A Biographical Dictionary of Sculptors in Britain 1660–1851, New Haven and London, 2009; Mapping Sculpture.

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Santo Calegari il Vecchio (the Elder) (1662–1719)

Sculptor, said to have been trained by a pupil of Alessandro Algardi, and credited with introducing the Roman Baroque style to Brescia. He was father to two sculptors, Antonio and Alessandro, and uncle to a third, Santo the Younger, who continued the family business. In Brescia, his works include the sculptures on the façade of Santi Faustino e Giovita, 1702, and the figure of Faith in the chapel of the Holy Sacrament, Sant’Agata.

Sources include: Napier, M., and A. Laing, The London Oratory. Centenary 1884–1984, London [1984], pp. 79–80.

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Angelo Castioni (c.1834–1906)

Marble carver born in Stabio, Ticino, in Italian-speaking Switzerland. Castioni settled in Paris where he worked as a praticien in Jules Dalou’s studio. Like his employer, he participated in the 1871 Paris Commune and, following its fall, took refuge in London. By c.1881, Castioni is recorded living in Cheyne Row, Chelsea, and during that decade became an assistant to Joseph Edgar Boehm. In August 1890, Boehm asked Castioni to go to Carrara to select and order some marble blocks. On his return journey, Castioni took a detour to Bellinzona, the cantonal capital of Ticino, where he joined in a popular uprising and shot dead a conservative politician. He fled back to London, the Swiss government requested his extradition and he was duly arrested. However, the 1870 Extradition Act clause stipulating that a fugitive would not be handed over if his crime had been politically motivated, resulted in Castioni’s discharge on appeal. Castioni made the newspapers again in June the following year (1891), but this time as the acknowledged carver of a portrait bust for the British Museum of Sir Henry Layard that his master, Boehm, had taken only as far as a plaster sketch at the time of his sudden death the previous December.

Sources: Landy, B., ‘Drury and Dalou – the benefits of a continental training …’, in Alfred Drury and the New Sculpture (exhibition catalogue), Canterbury, 2013, p. 15; Mapping Sculpture Daily News, 12 November 1890, p. 5; Pall Mall Gazette, 12 June 1891, p. 7; Saturday Review, 15 November 1890, pp. 548–49; The Times, 12 June 1891, p. 10.

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Castle Fine Arts Foundry

Chris Butler established the foundry in 1990 in a small shed in the grounds of Chirk Castle, hence the foundry’s name. The following year, he moved to larger premises at Llanrhaeadr-ym-Mochnant, Oswestry, Powys; and in 2004 he opened a workshop in Stroud and subsequently another in Liverpool. In 2008, the foundry won the British Small Business Champion award from the Federation of Small Businesses in recognition of the way it had developed its business. Public sculptures include Jemma Pearson’s Sir Edward Elgar, 2005, Hereford Cathedral Close; Ian Rank-Broadley’s two figure groups, 2007, for the Armed Forces Memorial, and Denise Dutton’s Land Girls, 2014, all three for the National Memorial Arboretum, Staffs; Mark Richards’ Captain Matthews Flinders, 2014, Euston Station; Andrew Edwards’ The Beatles, 2015, Pier Head, Liverpool, 2015; Sam Holland and Lynne O’Dowd’s Geoffrey Chaucer, 2016, Canterbury; and Emma Rodgers’ Elaine MorganElaine Morgan, 2022, Mountain Ash, Wales.

Source: Castle Fine Arts Foundry website.

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Ludwig Cauer (1866–1947)

Sculptor. Although his place of birth and death was Bad Kreuznach, Germany, Cauer exhibited at the RA, London, from 1892 to 1894, giving his address as 46 Glebe Place, Chelsea. His bronze statuette of Thomas MoreThomas More, 1894, is in Chelsea Library. He was the son of Carl Cauer and grandson of Emil Cauer the Elder, both sculptors. Ludwig’s brothers Emil, Robert and Hugo were also sculptors, as were his daughter, Hanna, and son, Eduard. Ludwig trained initially with his father, which included a study trip to Rome, and then with Reinhold Begas and Albert Wolff in Berlin. Following his years in London, Cauer returned to Germany and by 1895 was living in Berlin. He received an honourable mention at the Paris Salon of 1895 and was awarded third medal at the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle. In Berlin he contributed to two major schemes for which Begas was artistic director: supporting groups for the Kaiser Wilhelm National Monument (1895–97; destr. 1950) and a marble statue of Emperor Charles IV (1899) for the Siegesallee (demolished post Second World War). A replica of this latter statue was cast in bronze in 1900 by Martin & Piltzing of Berlin (the founders for Cauer’s Thomas More statuette) and erected in Tangermünde. Cauer was elected to the German Academy in 1916 and returned to Bad Kreuznach in 1918 where he worked mainly as a funerary sculptor.

Sources: ‘Kaiser-Wilhelm-Nationaldenkmal’, Wikipedia (German); ‘Liste der Figurengruppen in der Berliner Siegesallee’ figurengruppen, Wikipedia (German); ‘Ludwig Cauer’, Wikipedia (German); Mapping Sculpture; Oxford Art Online – Benezit Dictionary of Artists.

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Ludwig Cauer (photo: public domain)

Léon-Joseph Chavalliaud (1858–1921)

Sculptor born at Rheims where he was apprenticed as a modeller in the studio of Hippolyte Bulteau. He afterwards received a scholarship from the town to enter the École des Beaux-Arts, Paris, where he studied under Alexandre Falguière, François Jouffroy and most importantly Louis-Auguste Roubaud (‘le jeune’). In 1880, he won a Prix de Rome with his Mère Spartiate, in 1885 and 1886 obtained honourable mentions, and in 1890 was elected a member of the Société des Artistes Français. Shortly afterwards he moved to England, where he stayed for about 15 years, living in Brixton, south London. He showed at the RA from 1893 onwards, his exhibits comprising portrait busts and statues in both bronze and marble. For a number of years he worked for Farmer & Brindley, in whose employment he executed the figure for the memorial to Cardinal Newman, 1896, Brompton Road, Kensington; effigies for the monuments to Bishop Richard Durnford, 1896, Chichester Cathedral, and Hugh Grosvenor, First Duke of Westminster, 1901, St. Mary, Eccleston, Cheshire; four marble and four bronze statues of explorers and navigators, 1897–98, for the Palm House, Sefton Park, Liverpool; and statues of Bishop Talbot and Sir Samuel Bignold, (c.1906), for niches on the frontage of G.J. Skipper’s Norwich Union building, Norwich. Chavalliaud also executed the memorial to Sarah Siddons (1897) for Paddington Green. He appears to have returned to France in the 1900s and died at Boissy-sans-Avoir, Yvelines.

Sources: Gleichen, Lord E., London’s Open-Air Statuary, London, 1928; Gray, A.S., Edwardian Architecture, London, 1985; Mapping Sculpture; Oxford Art Online – Benezit Dictionary of Artists.

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Tristan de Pyègne, Léon-Joseph Chavalliaud, drawing (photo: public domain).

Philip Lindsey Clark (1889–1977)

Sculptor born in London, son of the sculptor Robert Lindsey Clark. He was educated in Cheltenham and studied sculpture under his father from 1905. He then attended the City and Guilds of London Art School, 1910–14, and the RA Schools, 1919–21 (having served in the Artists’ Rifles, Royal Sussex Regiment, 1914–18, where he rose to the rank of captain, received a mention in dispatches, and was awarded a DSO). Examples of his designs for war memorials were shown in the 1919 ‘War Memorials’ exhibition at the RA; his executed memorials include St Saviour’s War Memorial, 1922, Borough High Street, south London; The Cameronians Memorial, 1924, Kelvingrove Park, Glasgow; and, with Sue Dring, the Belgian Soldiers’ Memorial, c.1920, St Mary’s RC Cemetery, Kensal Green, London (he was awarded the Palm of the Order of the Crown of Belgium in 1932). Other commissions include a ceramic relief of bakers, 1926, 12–13 Widegate Street, London; a statue of William Dennis, ‘the potato king’, 1930, outside the Town Hall, Kirton-in-Holland, Lincolnshire; architectural sculpture on 159 Aldgate High Street, London; and carved reliefs in Westminster Cathedral. Clark showed at the RA, 1920–52. After becoming a Carmelite tertiary, he executed various works for The Friars, at Aylesford, Kent, 1949, and featured in the Friary’s publication, Image of Carmel, 1974. He was ARBS 1922–45; FRBS 1945–65; and PRBS 1958–59; his relief of St Thomas More was illustrated in RBS: Modern British Sculpture, 1939.

Sources: Buckman, D., Artists in Britain since 1945 (2 vols: A–L, M–Z), Bristol, 2006; Mapping Sculpture; Who Was Who.

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Richard Bentley Claughton (1917–1997)

Sculptor and teacher born in London. He studied at the Slade School of Fine Art, 1946–49, under Randolph Schwabe, returning later as a senior lecturer in sculpture. He was elected FRBS in 1953. His Queen Matilda (now Battle Abbey) was included in the 1960 LCC Battersea Park Open-Air Exhibition. His public commissions include a wall sculpture in wrought iron and plastic wood depicting ‘country pursuits in the smoke issuing from a moving train’, 1954, for the interior of the British Railways London Office; Man with Eagle, 1966, for Barclays Bank, King’s Road, Chelsea; a heraldic porch carving for West Ham Technical College; an altarpiece and Lady Chapel screen in oak for Lagos Cathedral; a group for the forecourt of the British Shoe Corporation, Leicester; a water sculpture for Harrow Civic Centre (with a wrought iron wall sculpture for the Council Chamber); a bronze sculpture for the Royal College of Pathology, London; a commemorative bronze for University College Hospital, London; and a statue of Chief (Dr) Henry Fajemirokun, in bronze-fed polymer for a site near Ibadan, Nigeria, 1979.

Sources: Buckman, D., Artists in Britain since 1945 (2 vols: A–L, M–Z), Bristol, 2006; various.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

William Robert Colton (1867–1921)

Sculptor, born in Paris, raised in Essex. He studied under W.S. Frith at South London Technical School of Art before entering the RA Schools in 1889 where his masters included J.E. Boehm and H.H. Armstead. An exhibitor at the RA throughout his life, he first showed there in the year he joined the Schools. After leaving, he spent some years in Paris. On his return, his work was noticed by the First Commissioner of HM Office of Works who commissioned a fountain for Hyde Park; following the deterioration of the original, a replica was installed in its place. In common with much of his ideal work, the fountain shows the influence of Alfred Gilbert and, in its mild eroticism, that of contemporary trends in French decorative sculpture. In 1896, Colton showed three compositions in enamel on silver with the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society, which led, in the following year, to his election as a member of the Society (he withdrew in 1900). Colton’s first work exciting major interest was The Image Finder, shown at the RA in 1897 (plaster) and 1899 (bronze; a cast is in Nottingham Castle Museum and Art Gallery). The critic M.H. Spielmann hailed it as ‘a really fine thing [deserving] to be included in the list of notable works produced by English sculptors’. Its subject was a lean-muscled, sinewy Indian, naked but for a loincloth, heaving a piece of sculpture from the ground. The public attending the 1899 showing at the RA would have been able to see, alongside it, Colton’s The Girdle, which, first shown in plaster only the previous year, demonstrated his equally fluent talent for portraying the female nude. The Girdle was purchased by the Chantrey Fund and is now in the Tate. In 1903 he was elected ARA (RA in 1919). Soon after came his first major public commission. In the 1905 RA he exhibited a plaster bust of the Maharajah of Mysore (marble in 1906) and in 1907, the marble statue intended for India. In 1906, his statue of King Edward VII was unveiled in King’s Lynn, Norfolk, and in 1908, his Worcestershire South African War Memorial. Two years later his Royal Artillery South African War Memorial was unveiled in The Mall, London. The centre part of this memorial was re-used as a First World War memorial for Stafford (unveiled 1923). Colton was a member of the AWG, 1894–1903, of the RBS from 1905 (vice-president 1916; president 1920); and professor of sculpture at the RA Schools, 1907–11. His health was never robust and he died at the age of 53 at his home, 5 St Mary Abbots Place, Kensington, having failed to recover from a medical operation.

Sources: Baldry, A.L., ‘Modern British Sculptors: W. Robert Colton, A.R.A.’, The Studio, November 1915, pp. 93–99; Mapping SculptureRoyal Academy of Arts website; Spielmann, M.H., ‘W.R. Colton, the new associate of the Royal Academy’, Magazine of Art, 1903, pp. 300–04; The Times, 14 November 1921, p. 14 (obit.); Whitely, W.T., ‘W. Robert Colton, A.R.A.’, Art Journal, 1911, pp. 177–82.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Angela Conner (b. 1935)

Sculptor and painter, born in London. Although she served an apprenticeship with Barbara Hepworth, she is otherwise self-taught. She works in both abstract and figurative modes, both of which she employed in successive versions of a single work, the Yalta Memorial, 1980–82 and 1983–86, Cromwell Gardens, South Kensington. Regarding her abstract work, she has described herself as ‘basically a landscape sculptor using natural forces such as wind, water, gravity, sun and shadow’. Major commissions for abstract sculptures include Wave, 129 ft high, stainless steel and carbon fibre, Parkwest Plaza, Dublin (it was, at the time of its construction [2003], believed to be the world’s highest mobile); also Threshold, Darlington Arts Centre; Janus Arch, Longleat; and Tipping Triangles, Aston University, all stainless steel; and in the USA, Arpeggio, stainless steel and granite, Heinz Plaza, Pittsburgh; and Poise, white marble dust, resin and stainless steel, Chattanooga. Her public statues include: General Charles de Gaulle, 1993, Carlton Gardens, London; Colonel Sir David Stirling, 2002, Doune, Stirlingshire; and Laurence Olivier, 2007, National Theatre, South Bank, London. She has exhibited widely in the UK, Denmark, Paris, Bologna, USA, Dubai and Australia. Examples of her work are held by the Arts Council, House of Commons, Eton College, National Portrait Gallery and the Jewish Museum, New York. She is a fellow of the Royal Society of Sculptors.

Sources: Angela Connor website; Buckman, D., Artists in Britain since 1945 (2 vols: A–L, M–Z), Bristol, 2006; Ward-Jackson, P., Public Sculpture of Historic Westminster. Volume 1, Liverpool, 2011.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Edward Bainbridge Copnall (1903–1973)

Sculptor and painter who was born in Cape Town, South Africa, but following the death of his mother moved with his father to England. Copnall studied at Goldsmiths School of Art and the RA Schools (finishing at the latter in 1924). He began as a painter, but turned to sculpture 1929 having met Eric Kennington and been strongly impressed by his work. Copnall exhibited widely, at the RA (1925–70), the London Gallery, New English Art Club, Royal Society of Arts, and at the Paris Salon. He was awarded the MBE in 1946 for his services during the Second World War as a camouflage officer. He was head of the Sir John Cass School of Art, 1945–53, and President of the RBS (now RSS), 1961–66. Copnall’s major public commissions include stone relief figures, 1931–34, on Grey Wornum’s RIBA building Portland Place, London; the easternmost stone relief figure, 1936–38, on the Adelphi Building, John Adam St, London; The Word (The Lambeth Preacher)), 1947–49, Lambeth Mission and St Mary’s Church, Lambeth Road; Carrara marble reliefs of actors and playwrights, 1959, formerly on the balcony fronts of St James’s House (demolished 1986), erected on the site of the St James’s Theatre, Angel Court, London; and Stag, 1962 (RBS Silver Medal), aluminium, formerly Stag Square, Victoria, relocated to Maidstone, 2004. Copnall’s Sculptor’s Manual, published by Oxford in 1971, includes an account of his pioneering investigations into sculpture in fibreglass resin, the first result of which was The Swan Upper, 1963, ICT House, northern approach to Putney Bridge, and the best known probably Becket, 1973, St Paul’s Cathedral churchyard.

Sources: Bainbridge Copnall. Painter and Sculptor. Memoirs with a Postscript, Bath, 2018; Buckman, D., Artists in Britain since 1945 (2 vols: A–L, M–Z), Bristol, 2006; Strachan, W.J., Open Air Sculpture in Britain, London, 1984; The Times, 19 October 1973, p. 20 (obit.); Who Was Who.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Francesco, Antonio and Domenico Corbarelli

Corbarelli father and sons, specialised in the decorative use of inlays of semi-precious stones (pietre dure). The father, Francesco (d. 1718), may have been born in Florence, but he and his sons Antonio (d. 1735) and Domenico (1656–1732) operated principally in Brescia, Padua, Vicenza and Modena. In Brescia, the family produced the altar of the Chapel of the Blessed Rosary in S. Domenico (now in Brompton Oratory) and the high altar of the church of Santa Maria della Carità (1685–96).

Sources: ‘Corbarelli’, Wikipedia; ‘Francesco Corbarelli’‘, Wikipedia; Napier, M., and A. Laing, The London Oratory. Centenary 1884–1984, London [1984], pp. 81–82n22.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Hubert Christian Corlette (1869–1956)

Australian-born architect. He studied in the RA School of Architecture (1890–95) and the Slade School of Fine Art. He was in partnership with Sir Charles Nicholson, 1895–1916, their most important collaboration being the remodelling of Burton Manor, Cheshire (Grade II, 1903). Corlette also worked on government projects for Jamaica and Trinidad. His war memorials include Kensington (with figure carving by F.W. Pomeroy) and in Sydney, New South Wales, the University War Memorial and Archibald Memorial Fountain (in collaboration with François Sicard).

Sources: Royal Academy of Arts website; Who Was Who.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Marcus Cornish (b. 1964)

Sculptor. He studied at Camberwell School of Art, 1983–86. In 1987, he was selected by Eduardo Paolozzi for the RA’s Jack Goldhill Award for Sculpture; according to Cornish, he was the ‘youngest ever recipient’. He attended the RCA 1989–92, during which time he was awarded a scholarship to travel to India to study the work of the Aiyanar potter priests. In 1993, he was elected ARBS. In 2000, he was appointed official tour artist on Prince Charles’s diplomatic tour of Eastern Europe and in 2002 official artist with the British Army in Kosovo. He is an academic board member, and occasional tutor, at the Prince’s Drawing School (a charitable trust founded by Prince Charles). Cornish’s commissions include Paddington Bear, 2000, bronze, Paddington Station, London; Stag, 2002, bronze, St James’s Square, London; Christ in the World, 2008–09, bronze, Church of Our Lady Immaculate and St Philip Neri, Uckfield, East Sussex – dubbed by the media, ‘Jesus in Jeans’, because of the figure’s contemporary dress; Vaughan Williams, 2010, stoneware clay, Chelsea Embankment; Mare and Foal, 2013, bronze, Berkeley Homes, Highwood, Horsham; and roundel portraits of G.F. and Mary Watts, 2014, on the Watts Gallery building, Compton, Guildford, Surrey.

Sources: Marcus Cornish website; Google Arts and Culture; Wikipedia.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Theo Crosby (1923–1994) and Polly Hope (1933–2013)

Theo Crosby was a South African-born architect, designer, writer and founder member of the Pentagram Design Group. He began as a modernist architect, but later questioned the quality, social adequacy and ideology of the vast post-war building programmes. He became a member of the Preservation Policy Group, which established basic conservation studies and some essential legislation. He was architect to the Globe Theatre project for twenty-five years, sharing with Sam Wanamaker a vision of the Globe helping to revitalise the area and developing bonds with the local community. In 1990, he married Polly Hope (for both, their second marriage). Born June Mary Anne Stockwell, Hope studied at Heatherley School of Fine Art, Chelsea Polytechnic and the Slade School of Art. She was a painter, illustrator, sculptor, ceramicist, set designer and writer, and exhibited internationally from 1958 in both solo and group exhibitions. In 1969, her first novel, Here (Away from It All), published under the pseudonym Maryann Forrest, garnered praise from Anthony Burgess. She executed many portraits, including one of Roy Strong in 1985 (employing yarn, fur, wax, applied work, painted wood and glass; V&A, museum number: T.465-1985). Her decorative work for the Globe Theatre included, in 1991, a bronze sculpture of Midsummer Night’s Dream, and, in 1997, a 20-metre ceramic mural with four corner sculptures on a zodiac theme. Examples of her work are in the Government Art Collection: Transport, Bangladesh (silk on linen), and Birds and Animals of Bangladesh (terracotta relief panel), both 1990.

Sources: ‘Obituary: Professor Theo Crosby’, Independent, 15 September 1994; Powers, A., ‘Crosby, Theo (1925–1994), designer and architect; also including June Mary Anne Hope (1933–2013)’, ODNB, 2011; Polly Hope, Jobbing Artist; The Times: (i) 21 September 1994, p. 21; (ii) 13 July 2009, p. 11; (iii) 14 December 2013, p. 95.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Marjorie Crossley (1890–1968),

Sculptor born Marjorie Vernon Lockey at Barton Regis, Gloucestershire; she married Lionel Crossley in 1916. She was an ARBS from 1947 (elected honorary treasurer in 1961) and from 1944 was listed as a teacher of modelling at the Polytechnic School of Art, Regent Street. She lived for some years in Felixstowe, Suffolk, and was a member of the Ipswich Art Club, 1946–50, her exhibits in these years including, in addition to portraits, The Journey by Night, 1947, St Mary Abbots Church, Kensington, and Descent from the Cross, 1949 (untraced). In 1955, Crossley was one of 12 sculptors invited by the Dean and Chapter of St Paul’s Cathedral to work as a team under the artistic directorship of Josefina de Vasconcellos to produce a representation in plaster of the Christmas stable at Bethlehem. Other collaborators included Franta Belsky, T.B. Huxley Jones and his wife, Gwynneth Holt, and Charles Wheeler. Crossley’s contribution was a group of The Three Shepherds (illustrated in The Times, 29 November 1955, p. 16; the complete ensemble was illustrated on the front page of the ILN, 24 December 1955). Crossley lived in London from about 1950, her final address being 70 Madeira Road, Streatham.

Sources: ILN: (i) 3 December 1955, p. 971; (ii) 24 December 1955, p. [1083]; Mapping Sculpture; Suffolk Artists; The Times: (i) 11 October 1955, p. 5; (ii) 29 October 1955, p. 16; (iii) 20 December 1955, p. 8; (iv) 27 March 1961, p. 6.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Hugo Daini (1919–1976)

Venezuelan sculptor, born in Rome. Between 1931 and 1935 he was a student at the School of Sacred Art in Rome, while working as an assistant in the workshops of sculptors Torquato Tamagnini and Lorenzo Ferri. In 1939, he entered the Academy of Fine Arts in Rome, but was conscripted into the Italian army following the outbreak of the Second World War; he resumed his studies after the war and graduated in July 1946. In 1948, he was one of three sculptors selected to represent Italy in the ‘XIV Olympiad Sport in Art’ exhibition at the V&A, London. A photograph of his bronze group, Japanese Wrestlers, was published in the ILN (24 July 1948, p. 93). In 1949, he emigrated to Venezuela and embarked upon a successful career producing statues of military heroes and liberators, most notably of Simon Bolivar, with standing statues in Caracas and in Belgrave Square, London, and equestrian statues in Barinas, Colón, Píritu and Turén, Venezuela; Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic; and Brussels, Belgium. Daini’s other commission, mostly in Venezuela, include monuments to the Founders of Cumaná, 1967, Cumaná, to the Venezuelan Soldier, 1971, Campo de Carabobo, Valencia, and to the First Republic, 1974, National Pantheon, Caracas.

Sources: Venezuela e Historia; Wikihistoria del Arte Venezolano

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Pierre van Dievoet, or Dievot (1661–1721)

Sculptor originating in Brussels. He worked in England as an assistant to Grinling Gibbons and, with Laurens van der Meulen, ‘modelled and made’ Gibbons’s statue of James II, Trafalgar Square, and probably cast his Charles II, Royal Hospital Chelsea (both c.1685/86). According to George Vertue, Dieveot ‘left England in the troubles of the Revolution’ (1688–89). He returned to Brussels, where in 1695 he was master of the Quatre-Couronnés, the guild of stonemasons and sculptors, and enjoyed a successful career as a sculptor.

Sources: Vertue, G., Vol. IV, Walpole Society, no xxiv, 1935/36, p. 50; Ward-Jackson, P., Public Sculpture of Historic Westminster. Volume 1, Liverpool, 2011; Wikipedia.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Nicholas Dimbleby (b. 1946)

Sculptor. His father was the broadcaster and journalist Richard Dimbleby (1913–65) and his older brothers, the broadcasters David and Jonathan Dimbleby. He studied sculpture from 1968, initially at Edinburgh College Art and subsequently at Goldsmith’s and Central St Martin’s where he took his degree in Fine Art. Dimbleby began working as an assistant to the abstract sculptor William Pye, but once he had set up independently returned to figurative sculpture, his first interest. Dimbleby’s chief public sculpture commissions include Elephant Seat, Leamington Spa, installed in Whitehead Court shopping centre, 1988, relocated to Jefferson Gardens, 2008; Captain Cook as a Youth, Great Ayton, Hambleton District, North Yorkshire, 1997; memorial plaque to Elizabeth Barrett Browning, St Marylebone parish church, 2006; portrait statues of James Abbott McNeill Whistler, 2005, Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, Christie Hennessy, Tralee, County Kerry, 2008, and Jimmy Hill, Ricoh Arena, Coventry, 2011; and war memorials at Cranleigh School, Surrey (‘Leaving’, 2016) and Aviva headquarters, City of London (‘Absent’, 2018). He also modelled his father’s memorial plaque for Westminster Abbey (dedicated 1990).

Principal source: Nicholas Dimbleby website.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Harry Dixon (1861–1941)

Painter, illustrator and sculptor, principally of wildlife, an interest nurtured by childhood trips to the London Zoo with his father who had been commissioned to photograph the animals. Dixon began his studies at the Heatherley School of Fine Art, but from 1883 to 1887 was in Paris, studying at the Académie Julian and in the studios of Bouguereau and Lefebvre. He carved four stone Lions for T.E. Collcutt’s Imperial Institute, South Kensington, 1887–93; following the demolition of the greater part of the buildings, 1956–65, two of the Lions were re-erected in front of the only significant survivor of the demolition, the Queen’s Tower, and two were relocated to the Commonwealth Institute (now in the grounds of Clarence House). Dixon exhibited both paintings and sculptures at the RA from 1885. In 1891, his watercolour, Lions, was purchased by the Chantrey Bequest for the Tate. He was a member of the AWG from 1891 (resigned 1898) and of the RBS from 1905.

Sources: Mapping Sculpture; Oxford Art Online – Benezit Dictionary of Artists.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Doulton & Co (est. 1815)

Pottery established by John Doulton at Lambeth as Doulton & Watts, which name it retained until 1851, specialising in utilitarian stoneware. In the late 1830s the firm extended its range to include architectural sculpture and garden ornaments in terracotta, some of it designed by the sculptor Samuel Nixon. In 1858, the firm became Henry Doulton & Co and c.1860 began to revive earlier types of stoneware producing, from 1862, its famous salt-glazed wares with blue decorations. From 1866, the firm enjoyed a close association with John Sparkes and the Lambeth School of Art where many of its finest artists were trained, including George Tinworth, John Broad and Herbert Ellis. In 1884, the firm opened a porcelain factory at Burslem, Staffs. W.J. Neatby joined as head of the architectural department in 1889. In 1899, Doulton’s became a limited company and in 1901 was granted a royal warrant, entitling the pottery to style itself Royal Doulton. The Lambeth works was finally closed down in 1956. In addition to art pottery and architectural sculpture, Doulton’s produced a number of large-scale fountains and memorial statues.

Sources: Atterbury, P., and L. Irvine, The Doulton Story. A souvenir booklet produced originally for the exhibition held at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, 30 May–12 August 1979, Stoke on Trent, 1979; Eyles, D., The Lambeth Doulton Wares (rev. L. Irvine), Shepton Beauchamp, Somerset, 2002; Fleming, J., and H. Honour, The Penguin Dictionary of Decorative Arts, London, 1977, rev. edn. 1989.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Conrad Dressler (1856–1940)

Sculptor and potter, born in London of German descent. He studied modelling under Lantéri at the National Art Training School, and also with Boehm and in France. He modelled a terracotta bust of Ruskin (RA 1885, no 2009) and in 1886 stayed with him at Coniston, receiving encouragement which influenced his stylistic development. Portrait busts were to be a major part of Dressler’s output; fine examples include William Morris, 1892, AWG, London; The Artist’s Wife, Nita Maria Schonfeld Resch, 1898, painted terracotta, V&A; Marianne North, marble, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. His architectural sculpture includes two relief panels in Ketton stone – Boy and Lanthorn and Lioness – for the porches of C.F.A. Voyseys’ 14 and 16 Hans Road, Kensington (1891–92) and two relief panels in Istrian stone for a series symbolising National Prosperity on St George’s Hall, Liverpool (1895). While still living at the family home at Glebe Place, Chelsea, Dressler met William de Morgan, who fired some of his early works. Dressler also set up his own foundry in Chelsea and carried out some cire perdu casting. In December 1893 he set up the Della Robbia Pottery at Birkenhead with Harold Rathbone. By 1897, he had moved to Marlow where he established the Medmenham Pottery which specialised in architectural tiles and large wall panels; it was here that he created the two faience friezes, The History of Hygiene, for Lever Brothers’ Sunlight Chambers, Dublin. He exhibited at the RA from 1883; in 1891 he was a founder member of the Chelsea Arts Club and was elected a member of the AWG, and in 1905, FRBS.

Sources: Beattie, S., The New Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1983; Mapping Sculpture; Miller, F., ‘A Sculptor-Potter: Mr Conrad Dressler, The Artist, 1900, pp. 169–76; Walker, R.P., ‘Conrad Dressler and the Medmenham Pottery’, The Journal of the Decorative Arts Society …, No. 18, 1994, pp. 50–60.

T. Cavanagh November 2022


Nothing is known for certain of Dujardin, apart from the fact that whoever he was, he was an accomplished sculptor with a developed skill in the special discipline of modelling in clay for baking as terracotta by the time he began work on the Natural History Museum terracottas in the early 1870s. The ‘M’ preceding his surname merely stands for ‘Monsieur’; the Building News referred to him as Mr. Du Jardin. To date, two possible identities, neither totally compelling, have been suggested. The first is Auguste Dujardin (born 1847 in Paris; d. c.1918), who showed a marble medallion at the Salon of 1866 and worked as an architectural sculptor at Metz. The second, Edouard Romain Dujardin (born c.1829 in Rouen; d. 1885 in London), is recorded living at addresses in Lambeth (c.1861) and Camberwell (1884–85). Although listed in the census returns as a wood sculptor/carver (he submitted two wood carvings, Dog’s head and Birds and flowers, to a competition for art workmen arranged by the Society of Arts in 1867) he also submitted a model in plaster, Panel of spring flowers, to the same competition in 1868 and a terracotta sculpture, Gossiping, to the RA in 1884. These examples show at least that animals and flowers were within this Dujardin’s range. A third possibility has arisen with the Natural History Museum’s archive’s acquisition in 2003 of a volume of drawings relating to the museum’s sculptural decoration, entitled: ‘Some details of the enrichments of the new Museum of Natural History (South Kensington) modelled by C. Dujardin for A. Waterhouse …’. Of C. Dujardin – supposing the initial to be correctly recorded – there is no reference anywhere else. A possible reason for the ostensible disappearance from English records of such a highly skilled artist in terracotta immediately after the completion of the Natural History Museum scheme may be that he went to the USA, where the demand for his services was greater and more remunerative.

Sources: Cunningham, C., The Terracotta Designs of Alfred Waterhouse, Chichester, West Sussex, 2001; Mapping Sculpture; Natural History Museum Library & Archives; Yanni, C., ‘Divine Display or Secular Science. Defining nature at the Natural History Museum in London’, Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, vol. 55, no. 3, September 1996, pp. 276–98.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Edme Dumont (1722–1775)

Sculptor and engraver chiefly of mythological subjects who was born and lived all his life in Paris. His father, François Dumont, was a sculptor, as was his son, Jacques-Edme Dumont. He trained under Edme Bouchardon and won the Prix de Rome for sculpture in 1748 (though never visited Italy). In 1752, while still a student at the École des Elèves Protégés, he was accepted by the Académie Royale, but only received as a full member in 1768 on presentation of his marble reception piece, Milo of Croton (h. 0.78cm; Louvre). Dumont exhibited at the Paris Salon, 1753–71; his major works include Cephalus contemplates the present from Procris and Diana and Endymion asleep. He also executed pedimental sculptures for the Manufacture de Sèvres and the Hôtel de la Monnaie, Paris.

Sources: Oxford Art Online – Benezit Dictionary of Artists; Oxford Art Online – Grove Art Online.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

French School, 18th century, Edme Dumont, oil on canvas. (photo: public domain)

Elkington & Co

Firm specialising in electroplating and bronze founding established in Birmingham by George Richards Elkington (1801–1865) in association with his cousin Henry Elkington (c.1810–1852). In 1840 Elkington patented an electroplating process as a cheaper substitute for solid silver, which revolutionised the silver trade. In 1842, Josiah Mason became a partner and the firm became Elkington, Mason & Co. By the time of G.R. Elkington’s death in 1865, the firm was the leading electroplate company in the world; the firm was thenceforth continued by his five sons (Frederick, James Balleny, Alfred John, Howard and Hyla). Although Elkington’s commercial success was due originally to the production of useful articles, it also made original decorative ware in a variety of styles, as well as reproductions made in the related electrotype process. Public sculptures utilising Elkington’s electrotype process include the statues of Samuel Crompton, 1862, by William Calder Marshall, Bolton, and Oliver Goldsmith, 1862, by J.H. Foley, Dublin, and The Great Exhibition Memorial, unveiled 1863, by Joseph Durham, Prince Consort Road, South Kensington. Among the firm’s productions using conventional bronze casting processes are the statues of Sir Robert Peel, 1855, by Peter Hollins, Birmingham; the Guards’ Crimea Memorial, 1861, by John Bell, Waterloo Place; the equestrian statues of Albert, Prince Consort, 1866, and Queen Victoria, 1869, by Thomas Thornycroft, Lime Street, Liverpool; and, on Holborn Viaduct, 1867–69, Agriculture and Commerce by Henry Bursill, and Winged Lions, Fine Art and Science, by Farmer and Brindley. In 1963, the firm became part of British Silverware Ltd.

Sources: Art Journal: (i) 1 November 1865, p. 328 (obit. of G.R. Elkington); (ii) 1 July 1866, p. 223 (‘Birmingham Arts and Manufactures, and their progress’); Derby Mercury, 13 November 1872, p. 7 (‘The home of Electro’); Fleming, J., and H. Honour, The Penguin Dictionary of Decorative Arts, London, 1977, rev. edn. 1989; Journal of the Society of Arts, 1 December 1865, p. 46 (obit. of G.R. Elkington); Mapping Sculpture; Noszlopy, G.T., Public Sculpture of Birmingham (ed. J. Beach), Liverpool, 1998; NPG British Bronze Sculpture Founders; Ward-Jackson, P., Public Sculpture of the City of London, Liverpool, 2003.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Jacob Epstein (1880–1959)

American-born British sculptor. He initially (1893–98) studied drawing and painting at the Art Students’ League, New York, but c.1899, turned to sculpture, attending night classes under George Grey Bernard, and working by day in a bronze foundry. He relocated to Paris and studied, firstly at the École des Beaux Arts and then the Académie Julian (1902–04). In 1905, he settled in London (becoming a naturalised British citizen in 1910). In 1907, he received his first major commission, for 18 life-size figures for the façade of Charles Holden’s British Medical Association building in The Strand (1907–08), his unidealized treatment of the nude sparking the first of a number of public scandals surrounding his work; the protruding parts of the figures were eventually hacked off in 1937, ostensibly to prevent them dropping to the pavement below, on the instructions of the new owners of the building, the high commission for Southern Rhodesia. Epstein began work on his next public commission, the Tomb of Oscar Wilde (1909–12) for Père Lachaise cemetery, Paris, in his studio at 72 Cheyne Walk. He had his first one-man show at the Twenty-One Gallery, London, in 1913 and in 1914 was a founder member of the London Group. Although now in close contact with the Vorticists, Epstein never joined them, and yet his Rock Drill(1913–25, destroyed; bronze cast of Rock Drill torso in Tate) is one of the most intensely powerful embodiments of the group’s aesthetic. His major public commissions of the inter-war years are Rima (Memorial to W.H. Hudson), 1923–25, Hyde Park, and, almost as controversial, his two monumental figure groups, Night and Day, 1928–9, for Holden’s London Underground headquarters, St James’s Park. Despite the notoriety of his large-scale public commissions, Epstein had been simultaneously building a reputation as a portraitist, with sitters ranging from Sibyl Thorndyke (1925) to Ramsay MacDonald (1926, 1934) to Haile Selassie (1936). His increasing income meant that he could rent a cottage in Loughton, Essex to use as a studio and permanently set up home at 18 Hyde Park Gate, Kensington. Other major works include The Visitation (1926, Tate), Genesis (1931, Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester), Lucifer (1945, Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery), Christ in Majesty (1953, Llandaff Cathedral), Field Marshal Smuts (1956, Parliament Square); St Michael and the Devil (1959, Coventry Cathedral) and Madonna and Child (1950–52, Convent of the Holy Child Jesus, Cavendish Square, London). Epstein received few public honours: he was awarded honorary doctorates by Aberdeen in 1938 and Oxford in 1953, and was knighted in 1954.

Sources: Buckle, R., Jacob Epstein Sculptor, London, 1963; Gardiner, S., Epstein. Artist Against the Establishment, London, 1992; Haskell, A.L., The Sculptor Speaks. Jacob Epstein to Arnold L. Haskell: a series of conversations about art, London, 1931; Mapping Sculpture; Oxford Art Online – Grove Art Online; Silber, E., The Sculpture of Epstein: with a complete catalogue, London, 1986; Silber, E., ‘Epstein, Sir Jacob (1880–1959)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; Who was Who.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Jacob Epstein with a bust of Kathleen, Lady Epstein,c. 1948, probably taken at the Leicester Galleries (photo: © National Portrait Gallery, London)

Thomas Eustice (fl. 1715)

The only known source for this sculptor, the ‘Trustees of the [Kensington] Charity School Accounts 1708–33’ spells his name ‘Eustice’, although the Survey of London has read it as ‘Eustace’.

Sources: Kensington Central Library local studies and archive: ‘Trustees of the Charity School Accounts 1708–33’, p. 119 (MS 63/6847); Survey of London. Vol. XXXVII. North Kensington, London, 1973, p. 37.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

David Evans (1893–1959)

Sculptor and carver, born in Manchester. He entered Manchester School of Art in 1912 and won a scholarship to the Royal College of Art in 1914. From 1915 to 1918, he was on active service in the First World War, but following demobilisation returned to the RCA, where Francis Derwent Wood was among his teachers. He completed his course in 1921 and went on to the RA Schools (1922–27), where in 1922 he won the Landseer Prize and in 1923, the Prix de Rome. He was at the British School at Rome, 1924–26, and showed the work executed there in his first solo exhibition, at the Goupil Gallery, 1927. He showed at the RA, 1921–59. He worked in the USA for some years, beginning with two years, 1929–30, teaching at Cranbrook Academy of Art; his commissions include works for the Rockefeller Center and a Christ in Prayer for Christchurch, Cranbrook, Michigan, the latter considered by Evans to be among his most important commissions. By autumn 1933 he was back in Britain. His public commissions include the Memorial to Bishop Chavasse, 1933, for Giles Gilbert Scott’s Liverpool Anglican Cathedral; relief carvings, 1935–36, for Wandsworth Town Hall and Municipal Offices; five relief panels for Earls Court Exhibition Centre, 1936–37; a bust of Thomas Coram, stone, 1937, over the entrance to 40 Brunswick Square, London; stone panels of craftsmen, 1938, for the exterior of E. Culpin’s Poplar Town Hall, Bow Road, London; relief sculpture, 1939, for Mauger, May and Sullivan’s Methodist Missionary Society building, Marylebone Road, London (illustrated in A.T. Broadbent, Sculpture Today in Great Britain 1940–43, London, 1944, pl. 8); and Gog and Magog, limewood, 1950–53, for the West Gallery, Guildhall, London. Examples of his work are in the National Portrait Gallery, London, and the National Museum and Gallery of Wales, Cardiff. Evans was an associate RBS from 1929 and a fellow from 1938. He moved to Welwyn Garden City in c.1942; the Urban District Council commissioned his stone figure of Dawn, 1950, for the Parkway.

Sources: Buckman, D., Artists in Britain since 1945 (2 vols: A–L, M–Z), Bristol, 2006; Mapping Sculpture; The Times, 16 March 1959, p. 14 (obit.); Ward-Jackson, P., Public Sculpture of the City of London, Liverpool, 2003.

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David Evans in his Studio with one of the five panels for Earls Court Exhibition Centre (photo: public domain)

James Samuel Farley (1811–1866)

Farley was a monumental mason who lived at Kensal Green and operated from premises opposite the entrance to Kensal Green Cemetery. His principal monument in the cemetery is that to Eleanor Mary Gibson (d. 1872), praised by Christopher Brooks as giving ‘striking proof of the high level of craftsmanship achieved by the commercial firms of Victorian monumental masons’. After his death, the business was carried on by his son, James Stephen Farley, and after the son’s death by T. Kemp; today it continues to trade at the same address under the name Jordan Farley Ltd. James Samuel Farley had been appointed chapel clerk and sexton of the cemetery in 1843 and is buried there.

Sources: Brooks, C., in J.S. Curl (ed.), Kensal Green Cemetery, Chichester, West Sussex, 2001; Mapping Sculpture ; Roscoe, I., et al, A Biographical Dictionary of Sculptors in Britain 1660–1851, New Haven and London, 2009.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

William Fawke (1948–2018)

Fawke trained initially as a painter at the Heatherley School but, on encountering the work of Rodin and Giacometti he shifted his primary focus to sculpture. He exhibited with the Society of Portrait Sculptors, 1978 and 1979, and had his first solo exhibition, also of portrait busts, at Chelsea Library, 1982. Other solo exhibitions include Leighton House Galleries, 1986; The Gallery, Cork Street, 1996; and The Air Gallery, Dover Street, 1999. His public statues include Thomas Cubitt (1955), with casts in Pimlico and Dorking; and Vaughan Williams (2001), Dorking. For Felix Dennis’s ‘Garden of Heroes and Villains’, Warwickshire, Fawke was commissioned to execute two statues, Dr Johnson (2009) and Tim Berners-Lee (2013). He was elected ARBS in 1997. He lived for most of his life in Chelsea, working from Chelsea Farm Studios in Milmans Street. At the time of his death, he was working on a series of sculptures based on Coleridge’s Rime of the Ancient Mariner.

Sources: the sculptor’s website (no longer available); The Chelsea Society.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Juan Carlos Ferraro (1917–2004)

Argentinian sculptor, principally of portrait busts and statues. He was a pupil of Luis Perlotti, collaborating with him on the Mausoleum of the Argentine boxer, Luis Ángel Firpo, in the Recoleta Cemetery, Buenos Aires. Ferraro shared a workshop with his wife, the sculptor Lidia Elsa Battisti. In 2006, following Ferraro’s death, his widow donated their workshop, along with more than 500 of her husband’s works, to the city of Buenos Aires to be opened as a museum. Notable among the works in the museum is a 2.4m high statue of the tango singer Carlos Gardel, Ferraro’s unsuccessful entry for a competition in which he felt he was the rightful winner. Ferraro’s work includes a group of seven busts of Argentine heroes in the Congreso de Tucumán underground station, Buenos Aires; the Monument to Aníbal Troilo (bandoneon player) in the Chacarita Cemetery, Buenos Aires; a bust of General Manuel Belgrano (1993) in Casa Rosada (Government House), Buenos Aires; and a bust of General Don José de San Martín’s biographer José Pacífico Otero, in Plaza Grand Bourg, Buenos Aires. He completed two statues of General Don José de San Martín, one for Belgrave Square and another for Seville. Ferraro was awarded the Palma Sanmartiniano by the San Martín National Institute in 1990.

Sources: ‘En el Taller-Museo de Juan Carlos Ferraro – Buenos Aires’, Gardel in sus monumentos; ‘Juan Carlos Ferraro, el escultor del monumento a San Martín’, Mensajero del río; Patrimonio y Arte Urbano de la cuidad de Buenos Aires.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Henry Louis Florence (1843–1916)

Architect. He was articled in 1860, and subsequently studied in the Atelier Questel, Paris. He attended the RA School of Architecture and was travelling student and gold medallist in 1870. Having been elected ARIBA in 1865 (Soane medallist, 1869), he was elected a full member in 1878 and was vice-president, 1897–99. He was also a president of the Architectural Association, and in his will made provision for the establishment of the AA’s Henry L. Florence Studentship’s Fund. Florence began practice as an architect in 1871 in partnership with Lewis Henry Isaac. His own designs, include the former Institute of Journalists, Nos. 2–4 Tudor Street, City of London, 1902–04, described in Bradley and Pevsner as a ‘pretty essay in the tradition of Norman Shaw’s Scotland Yard’, and the Kensington Queen Victoria Memorial, 1904, now Warwick Gardens. He was also an art collector who made bequests to National Gallery, British Museum and Victoria and Albert Museum.

Sources: Bradley, S., and N. Pevsner, London 1: The City of London, (1997), 1999, p. 612; ‘Henry Louis Florence, 1843–1916’, The Correspondence of James McNeill Whistler; Daily Telegraph, 21 February 1916, p. 7 (obit.); ‘Henry Louis Florence, Architect’, Prabook; Who was Who; Wikipedia.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

James Forsyth (1827–1910)

Architectural and ecclesiastical sculptor, born in Kelso, Scotland. He was a son of Adam Forsyth, a mason, and the elder brother of William Forsyth, also a sculptor. At 13, Forsyth was an apprentice carver and gilder in Kelso, but by 1851 was in Wells, Somerset, working for the architect Anthony Salvin, shortly afterwards moving to London. Forsyth’s first major commission was the execution of two great fountains to the designs of W.A. Nesfield at the 1st Earl of Dudley’s Witley Court, Worcestershire: Flora, 1859, and Perseus and Andromeda, 1860. Forsyth’s most extensive ecclesiastical commission followed in the mid-1860s at St John’s Church, Frome, for which he carved: along the approach to the north porch, a Via Crucis (‘perhaps unique among English churches’, Foyle and Pevsner); flanking the west porch, figures of the Evangelists on the exterior and four saints inside; the high altar reredos; a Madonna and Child and a Pietà for the Lady Chapel; and a series of 18 medallions in the nave arcade spandrels (miracles on the north wall, parables on the south). Forsyth also executed a number of tomb monuments, including Lord Lyttelton, 1878, and 1st Earl of Dudley, 1888 (both designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott, both Worcester Cathedral); Bishop Parry, 1881, and Hon. James Beaney, 1893 (both Canterbury Cathedral); Bishop Fraser, 1887 (Manchester Cathedral); George Godwin (d. 1888), Brompton Cemetery; Bishop T. Legh Claughton, 1895 (designed by James Oldrid Scott, St Alban’s Cathedral); and Bishop Pelham, 1896 (Norwich Cathedral). Forsyth exhibited at the RA (21 items, 1864–89) and at the Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts. His son, James Nesfield Forsyth, was also a sculptor.

Sources: Foyle, A., and N. Pevsner, Somerset: North and Bristol, 2011, p. 508; ‘The life and works of James and William Forsyth’, theforsythbrothers; ILN: (i) 6 April 1867, pp. 345, 346; (ii) 26 October 1878, p. 384; (iii) 4 June 1887, pp. 632, 634; (iv) 16 June 1888, pp. 650, 652; (v) 4 March 1893, p. 279; Mapping Sculpture

T. Cavanagh November 2022

G. Franchi & Son

Clerkenwell-based modellers, casters and, according to the Art Journal in 1866, ‘the only electrotypists who devote themselves exclusively to Fine Art’. Giovanni Ferdinando Franchi (c.1811–74) was born in Lucca, Tuscany, and his son, Giovanni Antonio Franchi, who predeceased him (c.1832–70), in Clerkenwell. Before moving on to the production of electrotypes, the firm had begun as casters of figures in plaster and played a significant role in creating the market for ‘fictile’ ivories (imitations of ivory in plaster); in 1846, they won a medal and five guineas from the Society of Arts ‘for the best imitation of ivory in plaster composition’. Franchi & Son received further medals in 1851 at the Great Exhibition, and in 1873 at International Exhibition, London, and the Universal Exhibition, Vienna. The firm supplied numerous casts for the South Kensington Museum’s (now V&A) Cast Courts including, in plaster, Nicola Pisano’s Pisa Baptistry pulpit (purchased by the museum in 1864 for £116 13s 4d); and in electrotype, Bonanno’s Pisa Cathedral Porta di San Ranieri (purchased in 1864 for £480) and Ghiberti’s Florence Baptistry ‘Gates of Paradise’ (purchased in 1866 for £950). The firm was also responsible for electrotyping, in 1867, the relief panels for the doors of the then main entrance to the museum (designed by James Gamble and Reuben Townroe to drawings by Godfrey Sykes). At G.F. Franchi’s invitation, in the early part of his final year, the business was acquired by Elkington & Co.

Sources: Art Union: (i) 1 July 1846, p. 204; (ii) 1 August 1846, p. 239; Art Journal: (i) 1 September 1866, p. 286; (ii) 1 January 1870, p27; (iii) 1 February 1875, p.44; NPG British bronze sculpture founders; Patterson, A., and M. Trusted, The Cast Courts, London, 2018; V&A Art & Design Archives: ‘Science and Art Department board minutes precis (1863–1877), vol. 1, p. 102

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Elisabeth Frink (1930–1993)

Sculptor and printmaker, born in Thurlow, Suffolk. She studied at Guildford School of Art, 1947–49, and then Chelsea School of Art, 1949–53, under Willi Soukop and Bernard Meadows. She taught at Chelsea, 1953–61, at St Martin’s School of Art, 1954–62, and at the RCA, 1965–67. Her first solo exhibition (following some early shows with the London Group) was at St George’s Gallery, London, 1955, and her first overseas exhibition was in 1959 at the Bertha Schaefer Gallery, New York; she has subsequently exhibited worldwide. She had a retrospective at the RA, 1985, and a memorial exhibition at the Yorkshire Sculpture Park, Bretton Hall, 1994. Frink was elected ARA in 1972 and RA in 1977; she was also a FRBS and was awarded the RBS Gold Medal for Sculpture in 1993. She was appointed CBE in 1969, and was made DBE in 1982 and Companion of Honour in 1992. Examples of her work are in the Tate and the Arts Council collection. Her work is figurative, consisting chiefly of men, animal and bird subjects, and including series such as the goggle heads, running men, horses and riders, etc. Public commissions include Wild Boar, 1957, Harlow New Town; Blind Beggar and Dog, 1957, Bethnal Green; Eagle Lectern, 1962, Coventry Cathedral; Paternoster, 1975, Paternoster Square, City of London; Horse and Rider 1975, New Bond Street, London; Standing Man, Walking Man and Running Man, 1985, WH Smith Headquarters, Swindon; and Water Buffaloes, 1986, Hong Kong. Her final work, the Risen Christ on the West Front of Liverpool’s Anglican Cathedral, was unveiled a week before her death from cancer on 18 April 1993. She was the subject of catalogues raisonné in 1984 and 2013 and an official biography in 1998.

Sources: Gardiner, S., Elisabeth Frink. The Official Biography, (1998), 1999; Mapping Sculpture; ODNB; Ratuszniak, A. (ed.), Elisabeth Frink. Catalogue raisonné of sculpture 1947–93, London, 2013; Willder, J. (ed.), Elisabeth Frink, Sculpture. Catalogue Raisonné, Salisbury, Wilts., 1984.

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Elisabeth Frink, March 1990 (photo:©A.K.Purkiss)

William Silver Frith (1850–1924)

Sculptor born in Leicester, a son of Henry Frith, the owner of a stone and wood carving business. At an uncertain date, Henry moved to Gloucester and the family business was carried on there by William’s older brother, Henry Chapman Frith. William moved to London, studying at Lambeth School of Art from the late 1860s and the RA Schools from 1872. In 1879, he was engaged to teach modelling at Lambeth (renamed South London Technical School in 1879), holding that position (part-time from 1895) until his death. Frith was one of the most influential sculpture teachers of his age, his students including many leading figures of the subsequent generation. Firmly believing in the essential unity of all the sculptor’s arts, Frith took on commissions of every sort, while nevertheless always considering himself principally an architectural sculptor. The architect for whom he carried out most work was Aston Webb. He worked on the architect’s Victoria Law Courts, Birmingham, 1887–91; Metropolitan Life Assurance Building, Moorgate, London, 1890–93; Christ’s Hospital School, Horsham, 1902–03; and the new frontages for the V&A Museum, 1905–08; he also carved Webb’s pedestal design for Heinrich Baucke’s statue of William III outside Kensington Palace, 1907. In addition, Frith worked for Doulton & Co, supervising the modelling team and executing the ‘Canada’ group for the firm’s Victoria Fountain, Glasgow, 1888. He executed two fine monuments in Gloucester Cathedral, a marble tablet to T.B. Lloyd Baker, c.1886, and the tomb of Bishop Charles Ellicott, 1908 (Frith carving the effigy, his brother the tomb-chest). For Lord Astor, Frith executed works for both 2 Temple Place, his London office, and Cliveden, his Buckinghamshire residence: for the former, a marble fireplace and overmantel for the library and, outside the main entrance, two bronze lamp standards decorated with putti calling each other on telephones; and for the latter, figures and groups in wood on the newel posts of the grand staircase. The importance of Frith’s teaching has tended to overshadow the excellence of his sculpture, which M.H. Spielmann considered ‘of an important order’, adding, the ‘qualities of Mr. Frith’s work are surely its freedom of line and vigour of modelling; the consideration and intelligence displayed throughout, the spirit of design, richness of effect, and the clear understanding of the virtues and the limitations of his materials’.

Sources: Beattie, S., The New Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1983; Mapping Sculpture; Spielmann, M., British Sculpture and Sculptors of To-day, London, 1901.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

John Galizia (1930–1988)

Foundry formerly operating from Battersea. John (originally Giovanni) Galizia first worked in Alexander Parlanti’s foundry at Parson’s Green, west London. He then went into partnership with Giovanni Fiorini, before setting up on his own in 1930. In its later years, the Galizia foundry was run by the son, Vincent Galizia. The firm specialised in the lost wax process and, though renowned for the quality of its small-scale castings, also completed some larger, public pieces, including bronze figures for Alfred Hardiman’s Viscount Southwood Memorial, 1948, St James’s churchyard, Piccadilly; Charles Wheeler’s Sea Piece, 1949, Port Sunlight; T.B. Huxley-Jones’s statue of David Livingstone, 1953, Royal Geographical Society building, Kensington Gore; Estcourt Clack’s Diana Drinking Fountain, 1954, Green Park, Westminster; Arthur Fleischmann’s St Francis, 1961, Francis Street, Westminster; and William Turnbull’s Sungazer, 1961, Kingsdale School, Dulwich. Other sculptors who used the foundry include Kenneth Armitage, Franta Belsky, Robert Clatworthy, Frank Dobson, Elisabeth Frink, Maurice Lambert, Henry Moore, Uli Nimptsch, William Reid Dick, Oliffe Richmond and Michael Rizzello.

Sources: Henry Moore Institute, John Galizia and Son Ltd archive (acc. no. 52/1992); James, D., ‘Foundries’, Arts Review, 13 February 1970, pp. 70–71, 87; NPG British bronze sculpture founders.

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James Gamble (c.1835–1911)

Designer, painter and sculptor, born in Sheffield. He was, with Reuben Townroe and Godfrey Sykes, a student at the Sheffield School of Design, where one of his masters was Alfred Stevens. Shortly after Sykes’s move to London to work on the architectural decorations for the South Kensington Museum, both Gamble and Townroe were invited to join him as his assistants. Following Sykes’s early death in 1866, his two former assistants were appointed to jointly run the museum workshop, and over the ensuing years brought many of Sykes’s designs to completion throughout the museum. The two also collaborated on the exterior terracotta decoration of the Royal Albert Hall (1865–71). Gamble worked from a studio on the museum site until its demolition in 1875, afterwards relocating to 24 Rich Terrace, Old Brompton Road. The chief works for which he was sole or principal designer are the museum’s Centre Refreshment Room (1868); Sykes’s memorial (unveiled 1875, Weston Park, Sheffield); and two of the figures for Aston Webb’s new façade for the museum, John Henry Foley and Alfred Stevens, 1905. When he and Townroe were not working together on the museum’s projects, they assisted Stevens on his two great commissions, the decorations for Dorchester House and the Wellington Monument for St Paul’s Cathedral.

Sources: Bryant, J., Designing the V&A. The museum as a work of art (1857–1909), London, 2017; Mapping Sculpture; Marsden, C., ‘Godfrey Sykes and his studio at the South Kensington Museum’, in M. Pye and L. Sandino (eds.), Artists Work in Museums: histories, interventions, subjectivities, Bath, 2013, pp. 48–62; Graves, S., ‘Sykes, Godfrey (1824–1866)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford, 2004; Physick, J., The Victoria and Albert Museum: The History of its Building, London, 1982; White, D., and E. Norman, Public Sculpture of Sheffield and South Yorkshire, Liverpool, 2015.

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Thomas Garner (1839–1906)

Architect and designer born at Wasperton, Warwickshire. In 1856, he entered the office of Sir George Gilbert Scott and in 1869, after working independently for some years, went into an informal partnership with G.F. Bodley. The most important of the partnership’s buildings for which Garner was either wholly or primarily responsible include St Michael’s Church, Camden Town (1879–81), and Hewell Grange, Worcestershire (designed 1883), the latter described in Brooks and Pevsner as ‘one of the most important late nineteeth-century country houses in England’ (it is now an open prison). Garner also designed the reredos, St Paul’s Cathedral (1886–87; removed after Second World War bomb damage), and monuments to Bishop Woodford (d. 1885), Ely Cathedral, and Bishop Wordsworth (d. 1885), Lincoln Cathedral; in each of which the figures were modelled by Guillemin of Farmer & Brindley. In 1874, Garner, Bodley and George Gilbert Scott junior founded Watts & Co, for which Garner made designs for textiles and ecclesiastical furnishings. The conversion to Roman Catholicism of Garner and his wife in 1896 led to the amicable dissolution of Garner’s partnership with Bodley the following year (their business being preponderantly Anglican church design). In 1899, following the death of Edward Hansom, Garner was appointed architect to Downside Abbey, Stratton-on-the-Fosse, Somerset, for which he designed the choir (1901–05) in which he himself was later interred.

Sources: Brooks, A., and N. Pevsner, Worcestershire, (2007), 2018, p. 625; Waterhouse, P. (rev. M. Hall), ‘Garner, Thomas (1839–1906)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Joy Gerrard (b. 1971)

Artist based in Belfast. After graduating from the National College of Art and Design, Dublin, she went on to the RCA, London (MA and MPhil). Her public installations include Assembly/450, 2011–12, at Chelsea and Westminster Hospital and Elenchus/Aporia, 2009, at the London School of Economics. She has had solo exhibitions in Dublin, Belfast, London, Stockholm and New York, and has taken part in group exhibitions worldwide. In a recent exhibition at the Alan Cristea Gallery, London, ‘Protest and Remembrance’, 2019, Gerard focused on the representation, in a series of meticulously drawn images, of popular protests, her aim being ‘to make visible the masses who attend these protests, which she strongly believes can make a difference. Her work not only takes protest – and remembrance – as its themes, but it is, in itself, a form of protest’.

Sources: Joy Gerrard website; Queen Street Studios; ‘Joy Gerrard – interview: “I’m interested in how we witness and interpret these events”’, 13 March 2019, Studio International.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

John Gibson (1790–1866)

Sculptor. Born in Wales, while still a child he moved with his family to Liverpool. In about 1806, while apprenticed to a firm of cabinet-makers, he met the sculptor F.A. Legé who brought him to the notice of his employers, the marble masons Samuel and Thomas Franceys, who paid to cancel Gibson’s existing indentures so that he might take an apprenticeship with them. His work there attracted the attention of the Liverpool banker, politician and art collector, William Roscoe, who supplied him with commissions, contacts, and access to his collection of antique sculpture. In 1817 Gibson moved to London, armed with letters of introduction from Roscoe. That same year, however, he left for Rome, his trip funded by a subscription raised by Roscoe among those who saw potential in the young man’s work. In Rome Gibson trained firstly under Canova and subsequently (after Canova’s death in 1822) under Thorvaldsen, remaining in Rome for the rest of his life, expanding his studio and the number of his assistants to cope with the increasing numbers of commissions from the many wealthy English visitors to Rome. The first of his rare visits to England, in 1844, was to inspect the placing of his marble statue of William Huskisson (his second, the first having been installed in a mausoleum in St James’s Cemetery, Liverpool). The position set aside for it in the custom house in Liverpool proving inadequately lit and cramped, Mrs Huskisson paid for a bronze cast to be erected outside the building, and the marble statue instead went to Lloyd’s for their new Royal Exchange building in London (it was relocated to Pimlico Gardens in 1915). Gibson’s most prestigious patron was Queen Victoria, whose statue (RA 1847) was among the first upon which he introduced touches of colour, in accordance with ancient Greek practice. The culmination of his experiments in polychromy is the so-called Tinted Venus, 1851–56 (Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool). Despite the classical antique precedent, the result was deemed by some as an unsettling clash with the formal idealization of the figure and by others as merely vulgar. Gibson exhibited at the RA, 1816–64. The recipient of numerous international awards and honours, he was elected ARA in 1833 and RA in 1836. On his death, he left his fortune and the contents of his studio, including many fine drawings and models, to the RA.

Sources: Eastlake, Lady (ed.), Life of John Gibson RA, London, 1870; Frasca-Rath, A., and A. Wickham, John Gibson. A British Sculptor in Rome, London, 2016; Greenwood, M., ‘Gibson, John (1790–1866)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; Matthews, T., The Biography of John Gibson, R.A., Sculptor, Rome, London, 1911; Royal Academy of Arts website.

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Margaret Sarah Carpenter, John Gibson, 1857, oil on canvas (photo: © National Portrait Gallery, London)

(Hubert) Donald (Macgeoch) Gilbert (1900–1961)

Sculptor born in Burcot, Worcestershire, the son of decorative sculptor Walter Gilbert (1871–1946). After Rugby School, he attended Birmingham School of Art, the RCA and the RA Schools, the latter from 1922 to 1927, where he was awarded silver and bronze medals (1924 and 1925 respectively). In 1936, he modelled a portrait bust of Sir Henry Wood; part of the collection of the Royal Academy of Music, this is garlanded and displayed above the orchestra at the Royal Albert Hall each summer for the duration of the Proms season. Gilbert’s architectural sculpture includes the giant relief figure Night Thrusting Aside Day, 1936–38, for one of the corners of Collcutt & Hamp’s New Adelphi building, in Adam Street, Westminster, and the even larger relief figure of an airman with an eagle on his shoulder, Inspiration to Flight (signed and dated 1940), on the Simmonds Aerocessories building (1936–42, by Wallis, Gilbert & partners) at Brentford, overlooking the Great West Road. In the post-war years, Gilbert was commissioned to complete the programme of carved decoration on the frontage of Barkers of Kensington’s department store, begun by his father in the 1930s; the array of items he represents on the eastern staircase tower includes one of the newly available televisions, whose inventor, John Logie Baird, had sat for Gilbert in 1943 (bronze cast of the bust, 1959, in the National Portrait Gallery). Gilbert lived and worked in Kensington until c.1940 when he moved to Fittleworth, West Sussex. He exhibited at the RA, 1925–57, and became an FRBS in 1937.

Sources: Lloyd, F., et al, Public Sculpture of Outer South and West London, Liverpool, 2011; Mapping Sculpture; Royal Academy of Arts website; Ward-Jackson, P., Public Sculpture of the City of London, Liverpool, 2003.

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Sylvia Gilley (1908–2008)

A sculptor, she initially studied at Chelsea Polytechnic but, on being introduced to the sculptor Frank Dobson in 1931, gave up her classes at the polytechnic to become an assistant in his nearby studio. She stayed until 1939 and in the year of her departure Dobson executed a watercolour head-and-shoulders portrait of her which he then gave to her as a gift. Subsequently, Gilley worked from her own studio in Chelsea, in Sydney Street. Her Esmé Percy memorial drinking fountain for dogs, 1961, is in Kensington Gardens.

Sources: Jason, N., and L. Thompson-Pharoah, The Sculpture of Frank Dobson, London, 1994, p. 83; various.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Ernest George Gillick (1874–1951)

Sculptor and medallist. He first attended Nottingham School of Art, the two gold medals he was awarded there helping to secure, in 1896, a scholarship to the RCA where he studied under Edouard Lantéri and gained, in 1902, a travelling scholarship to Italy. Gillick showed regularly at the RA summer exhibitions (1908–51). His two high relief figures, of Richard Cosway and J.M.W. Turner, 1905, for Aston Webb’s new frontages to the V&A building were his first important public commission. More followed: memorials to “Ouida”, 1909, Bury St Edmunds; Sir Francis Powell, 1910, Wigan; and Dr James Adam, 1912, Emmanuel College, Cambridge. In 1913, Gillick was one of ten sculptors selected to provide statues for Cardiff City Hall, his contribution being Henry VII at Bosworth Field. In 1918, he executed the pair of bronze caryatids representing Britannia and Asia for the P&O Line offices, 14–16 Cockspur Street, London. His Et Tenebris Lux for the Birmingham Hospital Centre was awarded the RBS medal in 1935 and in the same year was elected ARA. The early support Gillick received from George Frampton resulted in an abiding friendship, the younger man writing a personal memoir of Frampton in The Times (28 May 1928) following the latter’s death and designing Frampton’s memorial for the crypt of St Paul’s Cathedral, which consists of a giant toddler gazing on a miniature version of Frampton’s Peter Pan standing on the palm of his extended hand. Gillick lived in Chelsea from about 1901. In 1905 he married Mary Gaskell Tutin (d. 1965), also a sculptor and medallist. In September 1951, Gillick collapsed while dining in a restaurant in Sloane Square and died en route to hospital.

Sources: Buckman, D., Artists in Britain since 1945 (2 vols: A–L, M–Z), Bristol, 2006; Daily Mail, 26 September 1951, p. 3 (obit.); Mapping Sculpture; The Times, 27 September 1951, p. 6 (obit.); Welsh Historical Sculpture presented to the City of Cardiff …, 1916.

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Lady Feodora Gleichen (1861–1922)

Sculptor and medallist. Feodora Georgina Maud Gleichen was the eldest daughter of Prince Victor of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (1833–1891), a naval officer and, from 1866, himself a sculptor. He was the son of Queen Victoria’s half-sister, after whom Feodora was named. Feodora Gleichen studied firstly in her father’s studio and then at the Slade School of Fine Art, under Alphonse Legros. She completed her studies in Rome, taking a studio there for several winters from 1891 and exhibited regularly at the RA from 1892. An important early work, for the children’s hospital in Montreal, Quebec, was the life-size group in marble of Queen Victoria surrounded by children, 1895. Her Diana Fountain, 1899, is in Hyde Park. She won a commission in open competition to design and execute a decorative bronze relief, Queen Hatasu of Egypt, 1906, for the exterior of the National Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, and also an anonymous competition for an Edward VII Memorial, 1912, for the King Edward VII Hospital, Windsor. Her statue of Florence Nightingale was erected in 1914 outside the Royal Infirmary, Derby, and her 37th Division Memorial unveiled in October 1921 at Monchy-le-Preux, France (for which, shortly before her death, the French government made her a member of the Légion d’honneur). Photographs of a selection of her works were published in the ILN (22 December 1906, p. 944). The RBS accorded Gleichen the posthumous honour of being its first female member.

Sources: Garrihy, A., ‘Gleichen, Lady Feodora Georgina Maud (1861–1922)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; Mapping Sculpture; Spielmann, M.H., British Sculpture and Sculptors of To-day, London, 1901, p. 161.

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Lady Feodora Gleichen (1861–1922),1890. Album: Photographs. Royal Portraits, vol.45, Royal Collection Trust (photo: public domain)

Simon Gudgeon (b. 1958)

Sculptor born in Yorkshire. After studying law at Reading University, he practised as a solicitor. He began painting in his thirties, exhibiting for the first time in 1992, at Battersea Exhibition Centre. Gudgeon says that an ‘impulse purchase of artist’s clay at the age of 40 led into his new career as a sculptor, responding to what lay closest to his heart: the natural world’. He has since had exhibitions in London, New York, San Diego, Paris and the Netherlands; and has examples of his work in private collections in the UK and abroad, including those of the dukes of Edinburgh, Bedford and Northumberland, and also in museums, including the National Museum of Wildlife Art, Jackson Hole, Wyoming, and the Leigh Yawkey Woodson Art Museum, Wausau, Wisconsin. In 2011, the sculptor and his wife, Monique, opened to the public a sculpture park, ‘Sculpture by the Lakes’ at Pallington, Dorset, for which Monique designed the garden and landscape settings for her husband’s sculpture. Gudgeon models in terracotta clay, oil-based Chavant clay, epoxy resin and foam, producing sculptures primarily in bronze, but occasionally in marble, granite, glass or stainless steel. His sculptures are characteristically smooth-surfaced, simplified and semi-abstract, their forms derived from animals and birds, Gudgeon’s stated aim being to make a transformation of the original into ‘something abstract, taking away more and more information, but … maintaining the inherent tactile core, so the form is still identifiable’. Examples of Gudgeon’s publicly sited sculptures include Isis/Serenity, 2009, Hyde Park, London; Leaf Spirit, 2018, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; and Bird of Happiness, 2018, Mercia Marina, Willington, Derbyshire.

Sources: Simon Gudgeon website; Grainger, L., ‘Sculpture by the Lakes: “Gloriously wild”’, 15 July 2014, The Telegraph.

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Giovanni Battista Guelfi (fl. 1714–34)

Italian sculptor based in England for many years. He received his training from Camillo Rusconi (1658–1728), a leading sculptor working in the late Baroque style. Possibly engaged in Rome in the antique sculpture restoration business, Guelfi seems to have come to the attention of English collectors and it is thought that one of these, either Lord Burlington or Lord Leominster, two of his early patrons, encouraged him to come to England. In 1721, Guelfi restored the Arundel Marbles, then in the possession of the 1st Earl of Fermor at Easton Neston (now Ashmolean Museum, Oxford). Many of the original works Guelfi worked on in England were executed in collaboration with established architects, chiefly James Gibbs and William Kent. The most important work in which he was involved is the monument designed by Gibbs to James Craggs, 1724–27, Westminster Abbey, the standing, cross-legged figure of the deceased leaning on an urn proving highly influential with, inter alios, Rysbrack and Scheemakers. Guelfi’s model, in terracotta, is in the Sir John Soane Museum. Guelfi was himself to adapt the idea in his own monuments to Thomas Watson Wentworth, 1725–30, York Minster, and, in a seated variant, to Edward Rich, Earl of Warwick and Holland, 1730, St Mary Abbots, Kensington. Guelfi worked for Burlington both in his London house and at Chiswick Villa, but their business relationship was terminated abruptly in 1734 and Guelfi returned to Italy, settling in Bologna. The split seems to have been acrimonious, contemporary descriptions of Guelfi’s difficult character providing a probable explanation.

Sources: Esdaile, K.A., ‘Signor Guelfi, an Italian’, Burlington Magazine, November 1948, pp. 317–19, 321; Oxford Art Online – Grove Art Online; Roscoe, I., et al, A Biographical Dictionary of Sculptors in Britain 1660–1851, New Haven and London, 2009; Webb, M.I., ‘Giovanni Battista Guelfi: an Italian sculptor working in England’, Burlington Magazine, May 1955, pp. 138–45, 149.

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Charles Hadcock (b. 1965)

Sculptor born in Derby, now based in Lancashire. He studied at Gloucester College of Arts and Technology, 1984–87, and the RCA, 1987–89. In April 2007 he received the Queens Award for Enterprise Promotion. In 2008 was made a fellow of the RBS (solo exhibition at RBS in 2009). Other solo exhibitions include Reed’s Wharf Gallery, 1996; University of Essex, 1997; Canary Wharf, 2003 and 2011; and Encounter Contemporary, 2014 (in Threadneedle Street) and 2016 (in Mayfair). In 2014, Hadcock was commissioned as a Deputy Lieutenant of Lancashire. Public sculptures include Passacaglia, 1998, Brighton Sea Front; Caesura VI, 2000, Holland Park; Adagio, 2007, Salford Quays, Greater Manchester; and Helisphere, 2009, and Torsion II, 2009–11, Heron Quays and Bank Street respectively, Isle of Dogs. Hadcock’s abstract sculptures reflect his interest in geology, engineering, industrial processes, mathematics and geometry, the titles often reflecting his love of poetry and music.

Sources: Charles Hadcock website; Buckman, D., Artists in Britain since 1945 (2 vols: A–L, M–Z), Bristol, 2006.

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Emmeline Halse (1853–1930)

Sculptor born in Bayswater, London, a daughter of the sculptor George Halse. Shortly after her birth, the family moved to 15 Clarendon Road, Notting Hill, where her father built a sculpture studio which he encouraged his daughter to use. After learning the basics with her father, Halse studied, from 1876 to the early 1880s at the RA Schools, where, in 1877, 1878 and 1880, she won silver medals and in 1883 a second prize of £10 for a model of a design – this despite her training being restricted to copying from plaster casts of classical sculpture, owing to the exclusion of women students from the life classes until 1903. Following the RA Schools, Halse went to Paris, where she studied under the neo-classical sculptor, Frédéric Louis Désiré Bogino. At some time during the 1880s or ’90s (perhaps in Paris), Halse met her close friend the painter Helen Trevor, whose letters to her she published – after Trevor’s death – as Ramblings of an Artist (1901). Halse exhibited regularly at the RA (32 pieces from 1878 to 1920), Glasgow Institute of Fine Arts (22 pieces) and Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool (12 pieces), plus the Paris Salon (four pieces). Most of her works were small-scale domestic subjects or portraits; her most significant work, the reredos, 1889–90, for the Church of St John the Evangelist, Lansdowne Crescent, Notting Hill, she carried out without payment.

Sources: E. Farningham, Emmeline Halse, Sculptor 1853–1930, 2002 (unpublished; National Art Library, ref. 608.AD.0307); ‘Halse, Emmeline’, King’s College London: Victorian Lives; Mapping Sculpture.

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Harry Hems (1842–1916)

Ecclesiastical and architectural sculptor, born in London. He initially worked as a cutler, following the trade of both his father and grandfather, but subsequently learnt wood and stone carving, honing his skills in London and Italy. His first major contract was for the architectural carving on the Royal Albert Memorial Museum, Exeter (1866–68). He at first took lodgings near the museum but eventually settled permanently in the city, establishing a flourishing workshop, the Ecclesiastical Art Works. In 1868, Hems married and in 1877, his son Wilfred, who would succeed his father as head of the firm, was born. The firm showed, and were usually recipients of medals and prizes, at the Centennial International Exhibition, Philadelphia (1876), the Exposition Universelle, Paris (1878), the Chicago World Fair (1893) and the Antwerp Exhibition (1894). For Exeter, Hems designed the Livery Dole Martyrs’ Memorial, 1909, but the commissions considered by contemporaries to be his most important were the restoration, for Sir Arthur Blomfield, of the high altar screen, 1884–99, at St Albans Cathedral, Herts, and the design and execution of the reredos, 1912, for St Louis Cathedral, USA.

Sources: Daily Mail, 6 January 1916, p. 3; ‘Harry Hems – ecclesiastical sculptor and wood carver’ (updated 1 March 2019), Exeter Memories; Mapping Sculpture; The Times, 8 January 1916, p. 3.

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Harry Hems in his studio in Longbrook Street in Exeter, Devon, on 12 June 1896. He is carving a grotesque for one of the pedestals at the bottom of the grand staircase in the Municipal Corporation Building, Mumbai, India (photo: public domain).

Sean Henry (b. 1965)

Sculptor born in Woking, Surrey. After a foundation course at Farnham School of Art & Design, 1982, he took a degree course in ceramics at Bristol Polytechnic, 1984–87. In 1990–91, he was Visiting Artist at the University of California. His earlier works were mostly in fired clay, but in 1994 he used bronze for the first time. In 1998, he won the Villiers David Prize, the first sculptor to do so. Henry has exhibited widely both in the UK and abroad. He had his first solo exhibition in 1988 at the Anatol Orient Gallery, Portobello Road. Major solo exhibitions include ‘Sean Henry Sculpture’, RBS, London, 2009, and Forum Gallery, New York, 2010; and ‘Conflux: a union of the sacred and the anonymous’, Salisbury Cathedral, 2011. His public sculptures include Walking Man, 1998, Holland Park; Man with Potential Selves, 2003, Newcastle-Upon-Tyne; the 13m-high Couple, 2007, the UK’s first permanent offshore sculpture, in Newbiggin Bay, Northumberland; Standing Man, 2010, Stockholm; Lying Man, 2011, Frederik Meijer Gardens and Sculpture Park, Michigan, USA; and four figures at various sites in his birthplace, Woking, 2018. In addition, Henry was commissioned to provide a nine-figure installation inside One Basinghall Avenue (Standard Chartered Bank HQ), City of London in 2008; further casts of one of these figures, Walking Woman, were subsequently sited in Oslo, Norway; Bad Homburg, Germany; and Colchester, Essex (this last being paired with Man with a Cup in 2017). In 2015, Henry was commissioned by the National Portrait Gallery to create a painted bronze portrait of Sir Tim Berners Lee S(founder of the World Wide Web). Henry is a figurative sculptor whose works, despite their compelling presence, are not truly lifelike, being characteristically under- or over-life-size, the vigorous modelling of the surfaces and fluid application of paint clearly asserting their hand-crafted natures.

Sources: Sean Henry website; Flynn, T., Sean Henry, London, 2008.

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Vernon Hill (1887–1972)

Sculptor, draughtsman, illustrator and lithographer, born in Halifax, Yorkshire. He was resident in London from about 1908, working for the publisher John Lane, illustrating, for example, The Arcadian Calendar, 1910, and Stephen Phillips’s The New Inferno, 1911. After the First World War, he worked chiefly as a sculptor, much of his most important work being for Sir Edward Maufe: for example, Guildford Cathedral, 1932–56, executing, inter alia, the memorial to John Harold Greig over the inside of the sacristy door, the figure of St Ursula over the inside of St Ursula’s porch, and the bronze reliefs on the doors of the south entrance; St Thomas the Apostle, Hanwell, 1934, where he carved the doves over the north door, and within, a Virgin and Child and a font; St John’s College, Cambridge, where he carved a coat-of-arms for the north court, 1938–40; St Columba’s Church of Scotland, Pont Street, Chelsea, where he executed all the decorative carving, plus a figure of the saint over the main entrance, 1950–54; and the Runnymede Air Forces Memorial, where he carved stone figures representing Courage, Victory and Justice (completed 1953). Hill also executed six figures for the interior of John Edward Dixon-Spain’s St Joan of Arc RC church at Farnham, 1930: St Joan of Arc; St George; St Joseph and the Holy Child; the Virgin and Child; St Margaret; and St Catherine. Hill was included in the Fine Art Society’s 1986 exhibition, ‘Sculpture in Britain Between the Wars’. In 1972, the artist’s widow bequeathed to the Southampton City Art Gallery a large collection of her husband’s drawings and etchings.

Sources: Buckman, D., Artists in Britain since 1945 (2 vols: A–L, M–Z), Bristol, 2006; Mapping Sculpture; relevant volumes from Pevsner’s ‘Buildings of England’ series.

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Vincent Hill (born c.1880; active 1900–46)

Sculptor born in Cardiff. He studied at the RCA under Lantéri. A decorative panel he had submitted for a college exercise on the subject of Art was illustrated in the Arts & Crafts Magazine, 1904. In the following year, he was one of the sculpture students selected by Lantéri to execute a figure, in his case John Constable, for Aston Webb’s new façade of the V&A Museum. In 1906, Lantéri seconded Goscombe John’s nomination of Hill’s membership of the RBS. Hill exhibited at the RA once in 1908, giving his address as 29 Mimosa Street, Fulham. By the 1920s, he had moved to Beverley, Yorkshire, and in 1921 he carved the four seated figures around the base of R.H. Whiteing’s Beverley War Memorial.

Main sources: Mapping Sculpture; Royal Academy Summer Exhibition, 1769–2018 – a Chronicle. Index.

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Simon Hitchens (b. 1967)

Sculptor of abstract forms born in Sussex, now based in Somerset. His father John (b. 1940), grandfather Ivon (1893–1979) and great-grandfather Alfred (1861–1942) were all painters. Simon Hitchens studied at West Surrey College of Art & Design, 1985–86, and Bristol Polytechnic’s faculty of art and design, 1987–90, where he gained a degree in sculpture. He was assistant to sculptors Peter Randall-Page, 1990, and Anish Kapoor, 1993–96. The British Council selected Hitchens for sculpture symposiums in Slovakia, 1994, and Colombia, 1996. In 1998, he was elected ARBS. In the same year, four of his sculptures were bought for the Hiscox Plc art collection, London. In 1999, he executed his first publicly sited sculpture, Quiet Understanding, granite, for Conquest Hospital, Hastings. Other public sculptures include Coastline, 2005, granite and resin, Workington, Cumbria; Parallel Presence, 2007, granite, Limeharbour, Isle of Dogs, London; From Dawn until Dusk, 2008, granite, Boscombe Pier, Bournemouth; Transition Point, 2013, granite and polished stainless steel, Leys School, Cambridge; Unity, 2013, granite and blue resin, King’s Cross, London; Glorious Beauty, 2014, a glacial boulder and a stainless steel cast, Kensington High Street; and The Space Between, 2015, granite, Forbury Place, Reading.

Sources: Simon Hitchens website; Buckman, D., Artists in Britain since 1945 (2 vols: A–L, M–Z), Bristol, 2006.

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Simon Hitchens, December 2021 (photo:©A.K.Purkiss)

Albert Hemstock Hodge (1875–1917)

Sculptor born on Islay. He initially trained as an architect in Glasgow with William Leiper, afterwards entering Glasgow School of Art, where he won a gold medal, silver medal and four bronze medals, and where his skill in modelling architectural details encouraged him to become a sculptor. Hodge achieved recognition in 1901 with his plaster angels for the dome of James Miller’s Industrial Hall in the Kelvingrove International Exhibition. In this same year he moved to London and obtained much work as an architectural sculptor. His commissions include two figures, Thomas Chippendale and Josiah Wedgwood, 1905, for Aston Webb’s new Exhibition Road frontage for the V&A Museum, South Kensington; all the carving on Ernest George and Yeates’ Royal Exchange Buildings, London, 1907; the Maritime Prowess group, 1907, for Russell & Cooper’s Guildhall, Hull; decorative carving for Lanchester, Stewart & Rickards’ Deptford Town Hall, 1907; mythological groups and historical portrait statues on J.J. Burnet’s Clyde Navigation Trust Building, Glasgow, 1906–08; Mining and Navigation groups for Vincent Harris’s Glamorgan County Hall, Cardiff, 1910; the Monument to Robert Burns, Stirling, 1914; a statue of Queen Victoria for the frontage of the Glasgow Royal Infirmary, 1914; pedimental sculpture for the Parliament Buildings, Winnipeg, 1916–19; and colossal groups for Edwin Cooper’s Port of London Authority Building, Trinity Square, London, 1912–22 (completed by his assistant Charles Doman). Hodge exhibited at the RA 19 times between 1905 and 1917 and was elected as a member of the RBS in 1907. He worked in a decorative classical style, a dept to the Parthenon sculptures being particularly evident in his groups for Glamorgan County Hall.

Sources: Architect, 11 January 1918, p. 16; Beattie, S., The New Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1983; Builder: (i) 18 January 1918, p. 57; (ii) 8 February 1918, p. 93; Cavanagh, T., Public Sculpture of South London, Liverpool, 2007; Gray, A.S., Edwardian Architecture, London, 1985; McKenzie, R., Public Sculpture of Glasgow, Liverpool, 2002; Mapping Sculpture; Ward-Jackson, P., Public Sculpture of the City of London, Liverpool, 2003.

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Polly Hope

See Crosby, Theo, and Polly Hope

James Houghton (fl. c.1865–c.1904)

From 1865 to 1868, Houghton is listed in the Post Office London directories as a statuary working from addresses firstly in Albany Street and then Stanhope Street near Regent’s Park. In about 1869 he relocated to 212 Great Portland Street (later adding a second address, 10 Upper Charlton Street) advertising his business firstly as a marble, stone and granite works then, by 1879 – although still available for ‘all monumental work’ – giving priority to the manufacture of marble chimney pieces. His commissions include the architectural sculpture on Archer & Green’s 193 Fleet Street, 1883, and the pedestal for Princess Louise’s statue of Queen Victoria, 1893, Kensington Gardens.

Sources: Post Office London directories, 1865–1904; Ward-Jackson, P., Public Sculpture of the City of London, Liverpool, 2003, p. 123.

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Philip Jackson (b. 1944)

Figurative sculptor born in Scotland. He attended Farnham School of Art and afterwards worked for Henry Moore. In 1989, he was elected FRBS, winning the Silver Medal in 1990 and the Sir Otto Beit Medal in 1991, 1992 and 1993. In 2009, he was appointed CVO. He lives and works in Cocking, West Sussex. A highly successful and prolific sculptor, Jackson’s public sculptures include three commissions for the Manchester United Football Stadium: statues of The Young Mozart, 1994, Ebury Street, Pimlico, London; Constantine the Great, 1998, Minster Yard, York; the Chelsea In-Pensioner, 2000, Royal Hospital Chelsea; Queen Elizabeth II (equestrian), 2003, Windsor Great Park; Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother, 2009, The Mall, London; Mahatma Gandhi, 2015, Parliament Square; Joan Littlewood, 2015, Theatre Royal Stratford, East London; a group, The United Trinity: Best, Law, Charlton, 2008, Old Trafford, Greater Manchester; monuments to Raoul Wallenberg in London, 1997, and Buenos Aires, 1998; the Bomber Command Memorial, 2012, Green Park, and the Korean War Memorial, 2014, Victoria Embankment Gardens, London.

Sources: Philip Jackson website; Ward-Jackson, P., Public Sculpture of Historic Westminster. Volume 1, Liverpool, 2011.

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Philip Jackson, 2005 (photo:©A.K.Purkiss)

Frank Lynn Jenkins (later Lynn-Jenkins) (1870–1927)

Sculptor born at Torquay into a family of marble masons. From c.1890 he studied at the South London Technical School of Art under W.S. Frith and, 1893–98, at the RA Schools, where he became friends with the painter Gerald Moira, later collaborating with him on a number of decorative schemes using coloured plaster bas-reliefs, including for the interiors of the Trocadero Restaurant, Shaftsbury Avenue, and the Salle Bechstein (later Wigmore Hall), Wigmore Street, London. The two worked with the architect T.E. Collcutt on the P&O Company’s Pavilion at the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle, Lynn Jenkins’ low relief frieze panels winning a silver medal. They also worked on Collcutt’s Lloyd’s Registry of Shipping, Fenchurch Street, City of London, c.1900. Here Lynn Jenkins produced a relief for the lunette over the Council Chamber doorway and, for the vestibule, a 24.5m-long frieze in electrotyped copper, ivory and mother-of-pearl, with, at the head of the stairs, a bronze and marble group, The Spirit of Maritime Commerce. Lynn Jenkins’s 2.75m-high gilt bronze figure of Count Peter of Savoy, 1904, stands over the main carriage entrance of Collcutt’s Savoy Hotel, The Strand. In 1911, for Collcutt and Hemp, he carved monumental stone figures over the central entrance of Thames House, Queen Street, City of London. Lynn Jenkins was a member of the AWG from 1900 and a founder member of the RBS. In 1897, he joined the Chelsea Arts Club and in 1901 was elected chairman. He showed frequently at the RA from 1895 until his move to the USA in 1916, where he continued to work and exhibit until his death.

Sources: Architectural Review, vol. 1, November 1896–May 1897, pp. 99–106; Beattie, S., The New Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1983; Builder, 9 September 1927, p. 406; Gray, A.S., Edwardian Architecture, London, 1985; Mapping Sculpture; Spielmann, M.H., British Sculpture and Sculptors of To-day, London, 1901; The Times, 3 September 1927, p. 12.

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Arnrid Banniza Johnston (1895–1972)

Sculptor and illustrator. She was born in Sweden but she and her parents moved to England while she was still a child. She studied, 1914–21, at the Slade School of Fine Art where she won the Feodora Gleichen memorial prize for sculpture; her tutor at the Slade was James Havard Thomas. She worked in stone, marble and wood, her principal subjects, animals and children. Kineton Parkes, in his The Art of Carved Sculpture, rated Obelisk, commissioned by the Duke of Westminster for Walden Court, Pimlico, and erected c.1930, ‘her most important work’. He also lists several other works of relief sculpture – Cats on a Chimney Cowl; Squirrels; Resting Horses; Milking; and Pastoral (this last in blue Belgian marble) – and three in the round – a cow and girl; a cat (in wood); and a St Francis (in mahogany). She exhibited at the Goupil Gallery, Chenil Gallery and Whitechapel Art Gallery, and took part in the Selfridge Roof Garden exhibition of the London Group, her contributions being a bird bath and a work entitled In Pasture (in green serpentine). Her first work as a professional illustrator, 1930–35, was for the Underground Group and London Transport, designing posters. Shortly after she began writing and illustrating children’s books, including Animal Families (Country Life), 1939; Fables from Aesop and Others (Transatlantic Arts), 1944; and Animals We Use (Methuen), 1948. She was compelled to give up illustrating in her later years following the deterioration of her eyesight.

Sources: Fraser, I., ‘The “English Independents”: some twentieth-century women carvers’, Sculpture Journal, Vol. 23.3 (2014), pp. 370–71; London Transport Museum website; Mapping Sculpture; Parkes, K., The Art of Carved Sculpture, 1931, vol. 2, p. 125 (and photo of Obelisk on page facing); Wikipedia.

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Adrian Jones (1845–1938)

Sculptor and painter, born in Ludlow, Shropshire. Dissuaded by his father from becoming an artist, he followed his father’s profession, training as a veterinary surgeon and qualifying at the Royal Veterinary College in 1866. In 1867, he was gazetted to the Royal Horse Artillery, serving for 24 years, mostly abroad, in Ireland, India, Abyssinia, Egypt and South Africa. Jones sketched and painted in these years, but it was not until 1882 that he took up sculpture, persuaded by a new friend, the sculptor Charles Bell Birch, that, with his innate artistic sense and profound knowledge of equine anatomy, he should take up sculpture. In 1884, after some informal training with Birch, Jones achieved his first success with his showing at the RA of an equine plaster statuette, A Hunter, one of the right sort. In 1887, his bronze group, Gone Away, won first prize in the Goldsmiths’ Company’s competition (RA 1887). In 1891, he retired from the army, by which time he was living with his wife and son at 147 Church Street, Chelsea, next door to the Chelsea Arts Club, of which he became a member and, in 1906–08, chairman. In 1918, Jones was elected a member of the RBS and in 1935 awarded the society’s Gold Medal. His ambition to be elected to the RA was never to be fulfilled, despite his being nominated several times. Jones’s bitterness is clear in his Memoirs of a Soldier Artist (1933). He felt that his lack of formal training had not only led to his not being taken seriously by the art establishment, but that his detractors spread rumours that he used formally trained sculptors to ‘ghost’ his work, an accusation he devoted a large part of his autobiography to repudiating. His earliest commissions were mostly received through the influence of his military friends and the Prince of Wales (later Edward VII), who greatly admired his work. His principal public commissions were war memorials – Royal Marines, 1903, The Mall, London; Gloucestershire Yeomanry, 1922, College Green, Gloucester; the Cavalry of the Empire, 1924, Hyde Park; and Peace Memorial, 1924, Uxbridge; and equestrian statues – General Sir Redvers Buller, 1905, Exeter, and the Duke of Cambridge, 1907, Whitehall. His magnum opus, however, was his Peace Quadriga, 1912, for Constitution Arch, Hyde Park Corner, his hopes for a major unveiling ceremony (and perhaps even a knighthood) dashed by the death of his great advocate, King Edward VII, in 1910. Jones died at home in Chelsea aged ninety-two.

Sources: Burns, R.S., Triumph: the life and art of Captain Adrian Jones, 2010, Almeley, Herefordshire, 2010; Crellin, C., ‘Jones, Adrian (1845–1938)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; Jones, A., Memoirs of a Soldier Artist, London, 1933; Mapping Sculpture; Ward-Jackson, P., Public Sculpture of Historic Westminster. Volume 1, Liverpool, 2011.

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Adrian Jones, c. 1918 (photo: public domain)

Allen Jones (b. 1937)

Painter, printmaker and sculptor, born at Southampton. After studying at Hornsey College of Art, 1955–59, he entered the RCA in 1959, but was expelled in the following year for ‘excessive independence’. He subsequently taught in Germany, Canada, the UK, and the USA. Jones first came to prominence in the 1960s as a Pop artist, producing work notable for its erotic content derived from mainstream and fetishist sex magazines; his best known work in this line being the group of fibreglass figures of women in bondage gear, Hatstand, Table and Chair, which provoked moral outrage at its first showing in 1970. Jones’s first international exhibition was at the 1961 Paris Biennale where he gained the Prix des Jeunes Artistes. His first solo exhibition was at Arthur Tooth and Sons, London, 1963, and his first exhibition in the USA was at the Richard Feigen Gallery, New York, 1964, since which date he has had frequent solo exhibitions worldwide. He has had retrospectives in 1978 (graphics; ICA, London, then tour); 1979 (painting; Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, then tour), 1998 (print; Barbican Centre, then tour) and 2014–15 (Royal Academy). He was elected ARA in 1981 and RA in 1986. His public sculptures include Tango, 1984, Festival Gardens, Liverpool (commissioned for the Liverpool International Garden Festival); Dancers, 1987, Cotton Centre, Hays Lane, Southwark; Acrobat 1992, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital; Two to Tango, 1997, Swire Properties, Hong Kong; Dejeuner sur l’herbe, 2000, Chatsworth; Acrobat, 2001, GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford; and Head in the Wind, 2019, Greenwich Peninsula.

Sources: Buckman, D., Artists in Britain since 1945 (2 vols: A–L, M–Z), Bristol, 2006; Cavanagh, T., Public Sculpture of Liverpool, Liverpool, 1997; Cavanagh, T., Public Sculpture of South London, Liverpool, 2007; Lambirth, A., Allen Jones. Works, London, 2005; The Sculpture Factory; Royal Academy of Arts website; Royal Academy of Arts, Allen Jones, 2014 (exh. cat.; 13 November 2014–25 January 2015); Who’s Who (online).

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Karin Jonzen (1914–1998)

Sculptor and teacher, born Karin Löwenadler of Swedish parents in London. In 1944 she married artist and dealer Basil Jonzen (d. 1969) and then in 1972 the Swedish poet Ake Sucksdorff (d. 1992). As a child, her comic drawings impressed her father sufficiently for him to send her to the Slade School of Fine Art (1933–36). She won both the painting and sculpture prizes and in 1936 was awarded a scholarship for a fourth year, which she spent at the City and Guilds of London Art School, Kennington. In 1939 she was at the Royal Swedish Academy of Fine Arts, Stockholm, and in the same year won the Prix de Rome, although the Second World War – in which she served as an ambulance driver – prevented her from going to Italy. She was invalided out with rheumatic fever and during her recuperation became convinced that modernism – which she believed ‘did violence to the human form’ – was not the way forward, subsequently adopting a classicising style. Jonzen was both a fellow of the Royal Society of British Artists and FRBS (RBS silver medal 1983). She had a solo exhibition at the Fieldbourne Galleries, 1974, exhibited at the RA from 1944, and also showed in various group and mixed exhibitions. Examples of her work are in the National Portrait Gallery; V&A Museum; and the Bradford, Brighton, Glasgow and Southend art galleries. Public commissions include Ascension, 1956, Selwyn College, Cambridge; and The Gardener, 1971, Brewer’s Hall Garden; Beyond Tomorrow, 1972, Guildhall Piazza; and Bust of Samuel Pepys, 1983, Seething Lane Garden, all City of London. Jonzen and her first husband set up a short-lived, but highly successful, gallery in the house they purchased in South Bolton Gardens, Kensington, after the war. In her later years, Jonzen purchased a studio in Gunter Grove, Chelsea, in which she lived and worked for the remainder of her life.

Sources: Buckman, D., Artists in Britain since 1945 (2 vols: A–L, M–Z), Bristol, 2006; The Independent, 2 February 1998, p. 16; Karin Jonzen Sculptor (intro. by Carel Weight CBE, RA), London, 1976; Mapping Sculpture; The Times, 31 January 1998, p. 25; Who Was Who.

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Nadim Karam (b. 1957)

Beirut-based artist, writer, architect and teacher, born in Senegal. He gained a BA in architecture at the American University of Beirut in 1982, and in 1985 and 1989 respectively, an MA in architecture and a doctorate at the University of Tokyo. He taught architectural design at the American University of Beirut, 1993–95 and 2003–04, and was Dean of the Faculty of Architecture at Notre Dame University in Lebanon, 2000–03. In 1996 founded Atelier Hapsitus, a multi-disciplinary group of Lebanese architects and designers. He has had solo exhibitions, and participated in group exhibitions, worldwide. His book, Stretching Thoughts, was published in 2013. His permanent installation, The Travellers, on Sandridge Bridge, Melbourne, was commissioned by the City of Melbourne and the Victorian Government in 2005. Karam describes his work as ‘an optimistic act of rebellion … an affirmation of the power of creativity against the tedium, soullessness or terror that at one time or another afflicts our lives and cities’. His Notting Hill Stories: Carnival Figures and Carnival Elephant were installed at Notting Hill Gate, London, in 1970.

Sources: Nadim Karam website; Ayyam Gallery – Artists: Nadim Karam; City of Melbourne – City Collection.

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Nadim Karam, 2012 (photo:Martinekiwan, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons)

Kenneth Keeble-Smith (fl. 1933 – 1952)

Sculptor, painter and illustrator based in London and latterly, Farnham. He exhibited at the RA several times between 1933 and 1949, animals pre-war and figures post-war, employing a variety of stones and woods. He contributed illustrations to A.C.B. Bellerby’s The Lonely Dog. A True Story (published 1937; reviewed, with a reproduction of one of Keeble-Smith’s line drawings, in the Times Literary Supplement, 1 January 1938, p. 13). His bronze group for the Two Bears Fountain in Kensington Gardens was installed in 1940, stolen in 1967, and replaced with a replica in 1970. In 1952, he completed a stone relief panel, By Our Hands We live, for exterior of the Association for the General Welfare of the Blind offices in Tottenham Court Road (illustrated in The Times, 2 December 1952, p. 5).

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Charles J. Samuel Kelsey (1820–1888)

A son of the architectural sculptor James Kelsey, he started out in his father’s workshop, assisting him on the external architectural sculpture for Harvey Lonsdale Elmes’s St George’s Hall, Liverpool (1843–46). Following Elmes’s death in 1847, Kelsey worked in his own right for Elmes’s successor at St George’s Hall, C.R. Cockerell, preparing models for the ceiling of the great hall (1852) and executing decorative works in the small concert room (1854–55). Kelsey had first exhibited at the RA in 1840 and in 1843 entered the RA Schools on the recommendation of the painter William Etty, winning a silver medal in 1845. In 1844, he had submitted two statues, Earl of Shrewsbury and Venerable Bede, to the Westminster Hall exhibition. In 1846, the Society of Arts awarded him a silver medal for a design for an admission ticket to the Society’s rooms. His earliest known independent commission was in 1848 for the sculpture above the doorway of the Royal Insurance Building, Liverpool (demolished). In 1868, he carved four seated allegories for Horace Jones’s Smithfield Market building and in 1880 modelled a bronze relief for the same architect’s Temple Bar Memorial in The Strand. Although living mostly in central London (and occasionally Liverpool), immediately before the probable date of his wall monument to Anne Middleton Corbould and her eldest son, Ridley, in St Mary Abbot’s Church, Kensington (Ridley died in 1878), Kelsey gave his address as 1 Robert (now Sydney) Street, Chelsea.

Sources: Builder, 22 July 1882, p. 216; Mapping Sculpture; Roscoe, I., et al, A Biographical Dictionary of Sculptors in Britain 1660–1851, New Haven and London, 2009; Ward-Jackson, P., Public Sculpture of the City of London, Liverpool, 2003.

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Richard Kindersley (b. 1939)

Sculptor and letterer born in London. He studied at Cambridge School of Art and in the studio of his father, David Kindersley. Since setting up his own studio in London in 1970 he has undertaken major sculpture and lettering commissions for many public and private bodies. His public sculptures include a decorative plaque in lead, 1975, for Northcote House, University of Exeter; The Seven Ages of Man, 1980, a ‘totem pole’ in cold cast aluminium for Baynard House, City of London; The Innocence of Childhood, c.1998, a brick carving giving a child’s eye view of a busy street, on the Raphael Street underpass in Knightsbridge; Two Rivers, c.2001, a brick carving alluding to the location of the site, the Two Rivers shopping centre, Staines, Surrey, at the confluence of the Wraysbury and Colne rivers shortly before their entrance to the Thames; and Emigration Stone, 2002, an upright slab in Caithness stone bearing an inscription commemorating those who departed for the New World at the time of the Highland Clearances in the 1830s and ’40s, Cromarty, Scotland. Kindersley is the winner of seven major brick carving competitions and is a recipient of the Royal Society of Art’s Art for Architecture Award.

Sources: Richard Kindersley website; Cavanagh, T., Public Sculpture of Leicestershire and Rutland, Liverpool, 2000; Ward-Jackson, P., Public Sculpture of the City of London, Liverpool, 2003.

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Fritz Koenig (1924–2017)

Sculptor born in Würzburg, Germany. He studied at the Akademie der Künste, Munich, 1946–52. During a stay in Paris in 1951, he began working on forms derived from African sculpture, which he began to collect. In the mid-1950s, he produced a group of sculptures under the general title, Cattle, which were influenced by the early sculptures of Ewald Mataré (1887–1965). In 1957, Koenig won a scholarship to study at the Villa Massimo, the German Academy at Rome, his work on the theme of the ‘Quadriga’ dating from this period. For the German pavilion of the 1958 Brussels World Fair, he created two sculptures in bronze, Golgotha and Maternitas. In the early 1960s, he received several major religious commissions, including a relief representing The Creation for the main door of Würzburg Cathedral. During the 1960s, he moved from stylised figurative work to abstract sculpture heavily laden with symbolism. Sculptures from these years include his stelae and caryatid forms which developed into the series entitled Flora and Mona; his Great Flora L stands outside the German Embassy, Chesham Place, London. In 1964, he began teaching at the Technische Universität, Munich. Towards the end of the 1960s, he was commissioned to design a sculpture for the World Trade Center, New York. Installed in 1971, The Sphere (‘Kugelkaryatide N.Y.’) was the only work of art on the site to survive the terrorist attack of 11 September 2001; the work was restored and installed in nearby Battery Park as a memorial to the victims. Koenig said: ‘It was a sculpture; now it’s a memorial. Now it has a different kind of beauty, one I never could have imagined. It has a life of its own – different from the one I gave it.’ He died, aged 92, at Landshut, Germany, in 2017. In the following year, a major retrospective of Koenig’s work was held at the Uffizi and the Boboli Gardens in Florence.

Sources: ‘Sculptor Fritz Koenig of WTC fame dies at 92’, 23 February 2017, Deutsche Welle</a>; Oxford Art Online – Grove Art Online; Peggy Guggenheim Collection; Wikipedia.

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Fritz Koenig at the Skulpturenmuseum in Hofberg Landshut on the occasion of the screening of Percy Adlon’s newly revised 1979 film, ‘Nebenbei hauptsächlich Rösser’on 15 October 2015.This film documents the first encounter between the director and Koenig, which was followed by a further four films about the life and work of the artist by director Percy Adlon with cameraman Pit Kochs. (photo:Peter Litvai, Landshut: CC BY-SA 4.0 via Wikimedia Commons).

Frank Kovacs (active 1938–62; d. 1965)

Hungarian-born sculptor, mostly of portrait busts. He moved to Canada and trained as a minister (in the USA) to help his older brother establish a congregation of the Reformed (Calvinist) Church of Hungary in Brantford, Canada. After his brother’s death, Kovacs moved to England and exhibited in London (RA, 1938–62) and Paris. In 1955 he modelled a portrait bust of Alexander Fleming, one cast is in the Royal College of Physicians, another, unveiled in Chelsea Library in 1956 by Lady Amelia Fleming, has been on long-term loan to St Mary’s Hospital, Paddington, since 1993. Kovacs’ Memorial to the Victims of the Hungarian Uprising of 1956 was unveiled on the frontage of the Polish Hearth Club, 55 Prince’s Gate, South Kensington, in 1960. He died of cancer in 1965.

Sources: Köztérkép; Mapping Sculpture.

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Maurice Lambert (1901–1964)

Sculptor born in Paris, the elder son of the painter George Washington Lambert ARA and brother of the composer Constant Lambert. He was apprenticed to the sculptor Francis Derwent Wood, 1918–23, assisting him on the Machine Gun Corps Memorial, Hyde Park Corner, and attended life classes at Chelsea School of Art, 1920–25. Throughout his career he sculpted portraits, figures and animal subjects in stone and bronze. He had his first solo exhibition at the Claridge Gallery, London, in 1927. Other exhibitions include Seven and Five Society, 1928–31; Messrs Tooths’ Gallery, 1929; and Lefevre Gallery, 1932 and 1934. In 1932 the Tate accepted the gift of his alabaster carving, Swan. At his first appearance at the RA Summer Exhibition in 1938, he showed a bronze Head of a Woman, which was purchased under the terms of the Chantrey Bequest and presented to the Tate. In the same year Lambert was elected FRBS but resigned in 1948. In 1949, however, he was awarded the Society’s silver medal for his Pegasus and Bellerephon, shown at the RA in 1948, and in 1951 he was re-elected. He saw active service in the Second World War but was invalided out in 1941; in the same year he was elected ARA but only began exhibiting again in 1945. He and his wife spent the war years living with friends in Bosham, Surrey, firstly while he convalesced and latterly while he worked for the Government building motor torpedo boats nearby at Itchenor Shipyard. In 1950–58, he was Master of the RA Sculpture School and was elected RA in 1952. In 1956, his bronze statue of Margot Fonteyn was another purchase by the Chantrey Bequest; this is now at the Royal Ballet School, White Lodge, Richmond Park. His public sculptures include an equestrian statue of George V, 1936–48, Adelaide, South Australia; statue of Viscount Nuffield, 1944–49, Guy’s Hospital; six groups of the Angel of Light Overcoming the Powers of Darkness, plus two decorative armillary sphere finials, 1958–60, former Associated Electrical Industries Building, Grosvenor Place, London; Grand Fountain, 1958–62, Presidential Palace, Baghdad, Iraq; and Mother and Child (water sculpture), 1962, Basildon New Town, Essex.

Sources: Fletcher, H., ‘Lambert, Maurice Prosper (1901–1964)’, rev. V. Nicolson, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; Mapping Sculpture; Nicholson, V., The Sculpture of Maurice Lambert, Aldershot, Hants, 2002; Royal Academy of Arts website.

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Maurice Lambert by Walter Stoneham, bromide print, 1953 (photo: © National Portrait Gallery, London)

E.M. Lander

E.M. Lander is a firm of monumental masons operating from premises in the Harrow Road, opposite Kensal Green Cemetery. The firm’s connection with the cemetery dates back to 1838 when George Lander (c.1799–1861) undertook building work for the General Cemetery Company. Many of the cemetery’s monuments, however, are known to be by E.M. Lander, until recently a source of confusion. When J.S. Curl edited his monograph on the cemetery in 2000, the only E.M. Lander known to the volume’s writers was Edward Manuel Lander, who is buried in the cemetery and whose dates are 1836–1910. This would have made him too young to have executed two significant sculptural monuments dating to 1844, those to Major General Sir William Casement and to Emma Soyer (the latter being signed ‘E.M. LANDER / MASON TO THE CEMETERY’). Clearly there were two E.M. Landers and, according to English Heritage’s 2015 official list entry for the 1927 showrooms occupied by the current firm (E.M. Lander Ltd), the earlier of these two, the man who was responsible for the above-mentioned monuments, was George’s brother, born Manuel Lander but subsequently known as Edward Manuel Lander (1814–1884); the later E.M. Lander was George’s grandson. E.M. Lander Ltd was incorporated in 1916 and continues in business to this day, although the connection with the family ended about the time of the Second World War.

Sources: Curl, J.S., (ed.), Kensal Green Cemetery, 2001, pp. 104, 117–118, 119, 142, 172, 184, 187, 193, 218, 229, 233–234 and n11, 262, 277, 279, 283; ‘E.M. Lander Ltd’s showroom’, Historic England Official List Entry; Roscoe, I., A Biographical Dictionary of Sculptors in Britain 1660–1851, New Haven and London, 2009, p. 716.

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Edward [Edouard] Lantéri (1848–1917)

Sculptor, medallist, and teacher of sculpture and modelling born at Auxerre, Burgundy. In c.1863 he entered the Petite École de Dessin, Paris, while receiving training in the sculpture studio of Aimé Millet. Lantéri left the Petite École in c.1865 and entered the École des Beaux-Arts, where his tutors included Pierre-Jules Cavelier and Eugène Guillaume; during this time he also worked in the studio of François-Joseph Duret. During the Paris Commune in 1871, his friend Aimé-Jules Dalou took refuge in London and recommended Lantéri as an assistant in the studio of Sir Joseph Edgar Boehm (with whom Lantéri stayed from 1872 until the latter’s death in 1890). In 1880, Lantéri succeeded Dalou as a teacher at the National Art Training School (from 1896 the Royal College of Art), South Kensington, carrying on his master’s liberating modelling methods and becoming the most respected and influential sculpture teacher of his day; he was appointed the College’s first professor of sculpture and modelling in 1901 and, in response to requests to publish the notes he used for demonstration classes, compiled his three-volume Modelling: a Guide for Teachers and Students (1902–11). For Aston Webb’s extension to the V&A Museum, Lantéri executed, with assistance from four of his advanced students at the RCA – Sidney Boyes, Richard Reginald Goulden, Vincent Hill and James Alexander Stevenson – three figures for the central tower, Fame at the summit and Sculpture and Architecture in niches below; he also supervised the same students in their execution of four of the figures in the niches below, on the Cromwell Road façade (1905). Other public sculpture by Lantéri includes statues of Ludwig Mond, 1912, Swansea, and Sir Samuel Sadler, 1913, Victoria Square, Middlesbrough. Examples of his work are at the Tate, V&A, National Portrait Gallery and the Musée d’Orsay, Paris. He showed at the RA, 1885–1917 (70 works); and was a member of the Art Workers’ Guild, 1901–06, and of the Royal Society of British Sculptors, 1905 until his death in 1917.

Sources: Beattie, S., The New Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1983; Gray, A. S., Edwardian Architecture, London, 1985; Mapping Sculpture; Stocker, M., ‘Lantéri, Edward (1848–1917)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004.

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Alphonse Legros, Edouard Lantéri, 1898, silverpoint drawing, Paris, Musée du Louvre (photo: public domain).

John Lawlor (1822–1901)

Sculptor born in Dublin, but living and working in London for most of his life. He trained in the Royal Dublin Society School and first came to notice in 1843 when his Cupid pressing Grapes into the Glass of Time was purchased by the Royal Irish Art Union. In the following year he exhibited for the first time at the Royal Hibernian Academy (RHA) and in 1845 moved to London where he was employed by John Thomas modelling statues for the new Palace of Westminster. In 1847 Lawlor entered the RA Schools on Thomas’s recommendation. In 1851, he won a prize medal for his plaster statue, A Bather, at the Great Exhibition. On the evidence of this work Henry Weekes acknowledged Lawlor as a rising sculptor, praising his Bather as unsurpassed ‘by any in the whole Exhibition for the modelling of female flesh’. Prince Albert was so impressed that he commissioned a version in marble for Queen Victoria’s birthday present in 1855. Having won the Prince’s admiration, it was inevitable that Lawlor should be among those selected by Victoria to produce sculptures for the Albert Memorial; he was allocated one of the groups of the Industrial Arts, Engineering (1864–67). Lawlor received few commissions for public statues, perhaps the two most important being from his mother country, General Patrick Sarsfield for Limerick, 1881, and Bishop William Delany for St Mary’s Cathedral, Cork, 1889. His exhibited output comprised mostly ideal works and portrait busts. He showed frequently at the RHA (becoming an associate member in 1861) and at the British Institution and also, until 1879, at the RA, in which year he became involved in a dispute with the committee. Such an altercation seems to have been uncharacteristic of Lawlor, as he was generally well-liked, sociable and easy-going, this latter trait being suggested as the probable cause of his relatively low output and his failure to live up to his early promise.

Sources: Mapping Sculpture; Murphy, P., Nineteenth-Century Irish Sculpture. Native Genius Reaffirmed, New Haven & London, 2010; Roscoe, I., et al, A Biographical Dictionary of Sculptors in Britain 1660–1851, New Haven and London, 2009.

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Gilbert Ledward (1888–1960)

Sculptor born in Chelsea, the third child of Richard Ledward (see below). After studying at Goldsmiths College, he entered the RCA in 1905, where he studied modelling in clay under Edouard Lantéri, and the RA Schools in 1910, where, in 1913, he won the travelling studentship and gold medal, and the first Rome scholarship in sculpture. He spent five months in Italy, returning through France following the outbreak of the First World War. The many sketches he made during this period are contained in the sketchbooks held in the RA archives. Ledward returned to Italy on active service with the Royal Garrison Artillery. In the post-war years he received several commissions for war memorials, including for Abergavenny and Harrogate (both 1921), Blackpool (1923) and, most prestigiously, the , Horse Guards Parade, London (1926), which earned him in 1927 the RBS medal ‘for the best work of the year by a British sculptor in any way exhibited to the public in London’. He was Professor of Sculpture at the RCA, 1927–29, during which period his interests expanded to include direct stone carving, evidenced by his Roman stone sculptures, Caryatid Figures (RA 1929, no 1404) and Reclining Figure –‘Earth Rests’ (RA 1930, no 1503). In 1934, he founded ‘Sculptured Memorials and Headstones’, an organisation aimed at improving the design of such work and encouraging the use of native stones. In 1936–38, he worked on Inspiration, a colossal nude figure for a corner of Collcutt and Hamp’s Adelphi Building, London. His is also the Venus Fountain, 1949–53, Sloane Square, Chelsea. Ledward’s last major work was a Portland stone frieze, Vision and Imagination, which was installed after his death on the Barclays Bank building, Old Broad Street, City of London; it was salvaged following the building’s demolition and, at the time of writing, remains in storage. Ledward was a member of the RBS from 1921 (president, 1954–56), was elected ARA in 1932 and RA in 1937, and was appointed OBE in 1956. He lived and worked for much of his life in Kensington: he was at 1 Pembroke Walk Studios, c.1924–c.1939, and died at home at 31 Queens Gate on 21 June 1960. Later that year, his son, Richard A. Ledward, presented an early work of his father’s, Awakening, 1914–15, to the Metropolitan Borough of Chelsea; it was erected in the newly laid-out Ropers Gardens, Chelsea Embankment, in 1965. Ledward’s unpublished autobiography (1953) is held at the Henry Moore Institute.

Sources: Ledward, G., unpublished typescript autobiography, [1953], Henry Moore Institute (ref 1988.16/13); Mapping Sculpture; Moriarty, C., ‘Ledward, Gilbert (1888–1960)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; Royal Academy of Arts website; The Times, 23 June 1960, p. 18 (obit.).

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Gilbert Ledward, Bassano Ltd., 1937, half-plate glass negative, (photo: © National Portrait Gallery, London)

Richard Ledward (1857–1890)

Sculptor and teacher of modelling, born at Burslem, Staffordshire. He was first employed as a modeller by the Burslem firm, Pinder, Bowne & Co, and studied at Burslem School of Art. After obtaining a national scholarship, he went on to the National Art Training School, South Kensington; here he obtained a gold medal for modelling from life and was appointed assistant master of modelling. He afterwards became modelling master at the Westminster and Blackheath schools of art. From 1888, he was a member of the AWG. He exhibited at the RA 12 times between 1882 and 1890, all portrait busts, mostly in terracotta, some in marble. His terracotta panels, Music and Visual Arts decorate the porch of Queen Alexandra’s House, accommodation for female students of the National Art Training School. In the 1889 Arts and Crafts Exhibition, the architect John Sedding showed a drawing of his design for the pulpit at Holy Trinity, Sloane Street, the listing in the catalogue (no. 851, p. 263) indicating that the bronze panels were to be executed by Ledward. Tragically, the work was never carried out, as the sculptor died the following year, aged only 33, following a two-week bout of rheumatic fever. Ledward’s sudden death left his wife destitute and with four children to raise. A measure of Ledward’s popularity is evidenced by the raising of the ‘Ledward Fund’ to provide assistance for his family, organised by Sir Philip Cunliffe-Owen, director of the South Kensington Museum, John Sparkes, director of the National Art Training School, and some of the most prominent sculptors of the day. At the time of his death, Ledward and his family were living in Beaufort Street, Chelsea. He was the father of Gilbert Ledward and father-in-law of Newbury Abbot Trent.

Sources: Art Journal, 1 December 1888, pp. 26, 27 (review of the Glasgow International Exhibition and photograph of Ledward’s bust of Sir Philip Cunliffe-Owen, described by the critic as ‘an excellent likeness’); Glasgow Herald, 12 November 1890, p. 7; Mapping Sculpture; Moriarty, C., ‘Ledward, Gilbert (1888–1960)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; Pall Mall Gazette: (i) 26 November 1890, p. [1]; (ii) 10 December 1890, p. 2.

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Livingstone Art Founders, Kent

Sculpture foundry established by Wally Livingstone in the mid-1960s, based since 1985 in Matfield, Tonbridge, Kent. Public sculptures include Mo Farquharson’s The Miners, 1996, Hamilton, Lanarkshire; André Wallace’s Helmsman, 1996, Pimlico Gardens; David Barnes’s Hands and Molecule, 2000, Ramsgate; and Sam Holland’s Coxswain Richard ‘Dic’ Evans, 2004, Moelfre, Isle of Anglesey.

Source: Livingstone Art Founders website.

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Peter Logan (b. 1943)

Sculptor born in Witney, Oxfordshire. He studied at Oxford School of Art, 1961–63; Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, 1963–66, under Robert Medley; and the Slade School of Fine Art, 1966–68, where he specialised in Theatre and Film Studies. He later taught at Wimbledon School of Art, Reading University and Goldsmiths’ College. Logan has chiefly made kinetic sculpture since 1969, his earliest pieces powered by electricity and with electronic controls, those from 1975, powered by the wind, and those from 1997, by solar energy. His works have been installed in the mountains of Switzerland and Japan and on the coasts of Holland, France, Ireland and California. His public sculptures include Stansted Javelins, 1993, Stansted Airport, and Arrows and Obelisk, 1995, Old Kent Road; sadly, his The Climber, 1998, at Notting Hill Gate was removed, c.2020, following several years of neglect on the part of the site owners.

Sources: Buckman, D., Artists in Britain since 1945 (2 vols: A–L, M–Z), Bristol (1998), 2nd edn. 2006; Peter Logan website.

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Princess Louise (1848–1939)

Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll, was born Louise Caroline Alberta, the sixth of Prince Albert and Queen Victoria’s nine children. While still a teenager, Louise was taught how to model in clay by the sculptor Mary Thornycroft. In 1868, she entered the National Art Training School, South Kensington, but royal duties prevented her regular attendance. Louise’s marriage to the Marquess of Lorne was arranged by her mother in an attempt to bring her free-spirited daughter into line. Although arranged, and despite Lorne’s probable homosexuality, the marriage was initially happy, but by the 1880s the couple were spending increasing amounts of time living separate lives, and Louise was devoting more time to her art. She had been closely associated with the sculptor, Joseph Edgar Boehm, since his engagement as sculptor-in-ordinary to the Queen in 1869. She had taken lessons from him over the years and was at his studio on the evening of his death in December 1890 (her presence there strengthening rumours of their being in a sexual relationship). Louise exhibited at the Royal Academy, the Society of Painters in Watercolour, and the Grosvenor Gallery. The Royal Collection has her marble busts of Princess Beatrice (1864); and Prince Leopold and Prince Arthur (both 1869). Her major works include her statue of Queen Victoria, 1887–93, Kensington Gardens; three memorials from the same model (the crucified Christ supported by an Angel): (i) to Prince Henry of Battenberg (1898; St Mildred’s church, Whippingham, Isle of Wight); (ii) to the Colonial Forces of the Second South African War (1904; St Paul’s Cathedral, London); and (iii) to the 8th Duke of Argyll (1906, formerly the Argyll Mausoleum, now Kilmun parish church, Cowal Peninsula, Scotland). She also designed a font (1861) for St Mildred’s and a statue of Queen Victoria for the west front of Lichfield Cathedral. Louise lived at Kensington Palace; her sculpture studio in the palace grounds dates from 1878 and was designed by Edward Godwin.

Sources: Galliard, A., ‘Princess Louise – the career of a royal artist’, part 3, history Scotland; Lloyd, D.W., and N. Pevsner, Isle of Wight (The Buildings of England), (2006), 2007; Mapping Sculpture; Roscoe, I., et al, A Biographical Dictionary of Sculptors in Britain 1660–1851, New Haven and London, 2009; Stocker, M., ‘Louise, Princess, duchess of Argyll (1848–1939)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; Wake, J., Princess Louise: Queen Victoria’s unconventional daughter, London, 1988.

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Princess Louise in Venice, April 1881, Royal Collection. (Photo: Fratelli Vianelli; public domain)

Jonathan Loxley (b. 1960)

Sculptor of abstract forms in stone and marble. He attended Epsom School of Art and Design and, from 1979 to 1981, studied marble carving in Florence. He initially found work creating sculptures for film and theatre sets, but after about four years, decided to become a professional sculptor and devote his life to producing works of greater permanency. In 1989, he established a studio in Carrara, returning to the UK after about nine years. His Tonda, Iranian honey onyx, 2014, is in Holland Park. He currently lives and works at Dean Hill Park, Wiltshire.

Sources: Jonathan Loxley website; The Sculpture Park, Farnham, Surrey.

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Charles Henry Mabey II (1867–1965)

Architectural sculptor based at Vauxhall, the son of Charles Henry Mabey. Mabey carried on the business established by his father well into the twentieth century. In 1903, his firm tendered for the job of producing parapet figures for the new War Office building in Whitehall, but though it lost this commission to Alfred Drury, it did secure the contract for the building’s architectural sculpture. In 1910, the firm provided the model for Ralph Knott’s new County Hall building, subsequently carving all the architectural details to his designs, as well as the heraldic shields of the various London boroughs. The firm also executed architectural carving for Mewés and Davies’ RAC Club, Pall Mall, 1908-11, and Bernard George’s Derry & Toms Store, Kensington High Street, 1929–33. Mabey died at Worthing, 1 June 1965.

Sources: Mapping Sculpture; Survey of London Monograph 17. County Hall, London, 1991; Ward-Jackson, P., Public Sculpture of the City of London, Liverpool, 2003.

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Alexander MacDonald & Co

Firm of stonemasons established in Aberdeen by Alexander MacDonald (1794–1860). A visit to the British Museum in 1829 to see the newly-acquired Egyptian antiquities motivated MacDonald to revive the lost skill of working granite to a smooth, polished finish, which he did with machinery harnessing newly-developed steam power. In 1832, the first of his polished Aberdeen granite tombstones was installed at Kensal Green cemetery. Orders flooded in to MacDonald’s Aberdeen works and tons of granite was shipped down the east coast, up the Thames to London and carted to monumental masons’ yard and the recently founded cemeteries around the metropolis. From 1834 to 1853, MacDonald was in partnership with master mason and architect William Leslie, trading as MacDonald & Leslie. After Leslie’s departure and until his death in 1860, MacDonald ran the firm alone. After 1860, MacDonald’s son, Alexander MacDonald II (1837–84), managed the firm, initially with stone cutter Robert Ferguson, under a board of trustees, but in 1863 assumed direct control, with Sidney Field (a designer) as his partner, trading for the next 20 years as Alexander MacDonald, Field & Co. With the increased business of these years, the firm opened a London office at 369–375 Euston Road. Following Alexander II’s death in 1884, Ferguson (who had retained an interest in the firm) joined Field as a partner and the firm became a limited company, trading as Alexander MacDonald & Co Ltd. In 1912, the firm was acquired by Henry Hutcheon and thereafter traded as Henry Hutcheon Ltd until it closed in 1941. The firm received medals at the 1851 Great Exhibition, the Paris Expositions Universelles of 1867 and 1878, the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition of 1876, and Melbourne International Exhibition of 1880.

Sources: ‘Alexander MacDonald & Co. (fl. c.1820–1941)’, Glasgow – City of Sculpture; Curl, J.S. (ed.), Kensal Green Cemetery. The origins and development of the General Cemetery of All Souls, Kensal Green, London, 1824–2001, Chichester, West Sussex, 2001; Knee, R., ‘Alexander MacDonald (1794–1980) – Stonemason’, Friends of West Norwood Cemetery newsletter, January 2012, pp. 4–7.

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Tomb monument to Alexander Macdonald and family. Bronze tondo of Alexander Macdonald by George Anderson Lawson, Nellfield Cemetery, Aberdeen (photo: public domain).

Charlie Mackesy (b. 1962)

Illustrator and sculptor born in Northumberland and educated at Radley College, Abingdon, and Queen Elizabeth High School, Hexham. An atheist in his earlier years, Mackesy’s eventual acceptance of the Christian faith came with his conviction that its central purpose was the spreading of the message that all people have God’s unconditional love. A regular, and very popular, guest preacher at Holy Trinity Brompton (‘HTB’), London, the theme of all of his talks is his belief in the transcendent importance of love for one’s fellow human beings. Although he never attended art school, according to his own account he spent three months in America with a portrait painter where he learned about anatomy. He began his career as a cartoonist for The Spectator, subsequently working as a book illustrator for Oxford University Press. In 2003/4 he was one of the artists selected to work on Nelson Mandela’s Unity lithograph project. In 2019, he published his remarkably successful illustrated book, The Boy, The Mole, The Fox and The Horse, the main themes of which are love, friendship and kindness; by the end of 2020 it had sold over a million copies. His sculpture is similarly expressive of his beliefs, an example of which is his Return of the Prodigal, 2005 sited on the approach to HTB, an earlier variant of which was incorporated into the headstone over the grave of the political consultant Philip Gould (d. 2011) in Highgate Cemetery.

Sources: Charlie Mackesy website; Wikipedia.

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Carlo Magnoni (c.1871–1961)

Sculptor, carver, playwright and anarchist. Born in Brescia, Italy, he was in London from 1901. Magnoni is known to have carved for Thomas Brock, although it has not been possible to find any specific examples. He also carved for Onslow Ford, the statue of T.H. Huxley (1900), Natural History Museum; and for Henry Fehr, the carvings on the Victoria Railway Station frontage (1909–10) and probably the Middlesex Guildhall, Parliament Square (1912–13), and the war memorials at Leeds (1922), Colchester (1923), and Burton upon Trent (1922). Magnoni also carved a portrait bust of Sante Caserio (the Italian anarchist who in 1894 had assassinated the President of France, Sadi Carnot) which he submitted to the 1906 RA and which, unsurprisingly, they rejected. He also carved the figures on the Waggoner’s Memorial, Sledmore, Yorkshire (1919–20), designed by Lieutenant Colonel Sir Mark Sykes. Two of his plays, both socio-political dramas, ‘I delitti delle comari’ and ‘Gli Irredenti’, were performed in the Club Cooperativo italiano, Greek Street, in 1915 and 1917 respectively. Magnoni is recorded as residing in Bywater Street, Chelsea, in 1901, Bovingdon Road, Fulham, in 1911, and in 1954, the date in which his naturalisation as a British citizen is recorded in The London Gazette, Bernard Gardens, Wimbledon.

Sources: Burch, S. ‘United Enemies’ (Blog), 15 November 2011; Historic England official list entries: (i) Burton upon Trent war memorial; (ii) Colchester war memorial; London Gazette, 18 May 1954, p. 2931; Mapping Sculpture; Natural History Museum archives, ‘Statues 1927–1947’ (DF ADM/1004/700, 23, 95); Paolo, Pietro di, The Knights Errant of Anarchy: London and the Italian Anarchist Diaspora (1880-1917), Oxford, 2013, pp. 94n10, 99n32, 174–75, 194; The Sledmere War Memorial.

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Orazio Marinali (1643–1720)

Sculptor who trained in Venice with Josse de Corte (1627–79) and was influenced by him, as is evidenced by the statues of St Rosa of Lima and St Pius V either side of the Lady Altar at Brompton Oratory, Kensington, and in other works such as his statues of the Virgin and Child with St Dominic and St Catherine (1679) for the altar of the Rosary in S Nicolò, Treviso, and the Virgin and Child with Saints, Angels and Putti for the cathedral in Bassano del Grappa. In addition to his numerous commissions for sacred statues, Marinali received many for secular figures to decorate gardens and parks. He and his workshop were particularly known for imaginary portraits of desperadoes (bravi) and characters drawn from popular entertainments, for example, the commedia dell’arte figures in the garden of the Villa Conti Lampertico (‘La Deliziosa’) at Montegaldella, near Vicenza.

Principal source: Oxford Art Online – Grove Art Online

T. Cavanagh November 2022

William Calder Marshall (1813–1894)

Sculptor, born in Edinburgh, the son of a goldsmith. Marshall began his art studies at the Trustees’ Academy in 1830, and in 1834 moved to London, where he worked in the studios of Francis Chantrey and Edward Hodges Baily. On Chantrey’s recommendation, Marshall was accepted by the RA Schools in 1834, winning a silver medal in 1835. He studied in Rome, 1836–38, and in 1839 settled permanently in London. He showed at the RA 1835–91 (elected ARA 1844 and RA 1852); the British Institution, 1839–57; and the RSA, 1836–91 (elected ARSA in 1840, resigned when elected to the RA, made an honorary member at a later date). In 1844 he submitted statues of Geoffrey Chaucer and Eve to the Westminster Hall competition, on the basis of which he was awarded commissions for statues of Lord Clarendon, 1847, and John, Baron Somers, 1855 (erected in St Stephen’s Hall). In 1857, despite winning the £700 first prize for his design for the Wellington Monument for St Paul’s Cathedral, he was ultimately commissioned to execute only the series of reliefs for the Wellington Chapel (the commission for the monument going instead to Alfred Stevens). In 1878, Marshall was nominated a Chevalier of the Legion d’honneur in recognition of his services as a commissioner at the Paris Exposition. He executed many ideal works, including Hero and Leander, 1839 (for the Art Union); Hebe Rejected, 1837 (National Gallery of Scotland); The First Whisper of Love, 1845, and Sabrina, 1847 (both Royal Dublin Society); Infant Satyr, 1845–49 (diploma work, RA, Burlington House); Griselda, 1853–55 (Mansion House, City of London); Undine, 1863 (Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool); and Stepping Stones, 1880 (Salford Art Gallery). His most important public commissions include statues of Sir Robert Peel, 1853, Manchester; Thomas Campbell, 1848 (installed 1855), Westminster Abbey; Samuel Crompton, 1862, Bolton; the ‘Agriculture’ group for the Albert Memorial; and a pedimental group for Bolton Town Hall, 1870. A self-portrait bust is in the Scottish National Portrait Gallery. Following Marshall’s death in 1894, his executors staged an exhibition of his works in his studio at 115 Ebury Street, Pimlico. Archival material on the sculptor is held in the RA archives (‘William Calder Marshall papers’ 12 volumes, 1835–81, ref. MAR) and the Henry Moore Institute (refs. 1992.55 and 1997.32).

Sources: Greenwood, M., ‘Marshall, William Calder (1813–1894)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; Mapping Sculpture; Roscoe, I., et al, A Biographical Dictionary of Sculptors in Britain 1660–1851, New Haven and London, 2009; Royal Academy of Arts website.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

William Calder Marshall, Ralph Winwood Robinson C. Whittingham & Co, c. 1889, published 1892, platinum print (photo: © National Portrait Gallery, London)

Paul Mason (1952–2006)

Sculptor and painter born in Bolton, Lancashire. He studied at Bolton College of Art & Design, 1970–71; Wolverhampton Polytechnic, 1971–74 (under John Paddison); and the RA Schools, 1974–77 (under Willi Soukop). In 1976, he was the winner of the RA Gold Medal. Mason taught at art schools in Loughborough and Staffordshire, and at Northumbria University, 1993–97, and Derby University, 2004–06 (where he was Professor of Sculpture). Residencies include Webster University, St Louis, USA (1986), Tate St Ives (1996), and Gloucester Cathedral (2000–01). In 1977, Sir Frederick Gibberd commissioned from Mason, Hinge, in red sandstone, for the Gibberd Garden, Harlow New Town; this was followed by two more pieces for the town, Vertex, 1979, Bardolino marble, for Broad Walk, and Courtyard, 1985, marble, for the Civic Centre. In 1988, Mason was lead artist in the Tudor Square project, Sheffield; despite its having received the City of Sheffield’s Design Award in 1993, it is now largely lost to subsequent redevelopments. Other major commissions include Above and Below, 1993, Ancaster limestone, for the National Maritime Building, Southampton; sculptures and mosaic panels, 1998, for Seaham Promenade, County Durham; and East Yar River Project, 2002, six sculptures in Portland stone sited along the river from Niton to Brading, and The Tyburn Group, 2002, two sculptures in marble, plus a lettered plaque in slate listing the significant place names associated with the course of the Tyburn river from its source at Shepherd’s Well, Hampstead, to its outlet into the Thames below Vauxhall Bridge.

Sources: Harlow Art Trust, Sculpture in Harlow, 2005, pp. 61–63, 106; obituary, 19 May 2006, Independent online; White, D., and E. Norman, Public Sculpture of Sheffield and South Yorkshire, Liverpool, 2015, pp. 283–85; Wikipedia.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Paul Mason in residence at Barbara Hepworth’s Studio St Ives 1996. (photo:Josephmason, CC BY-SA 4.0 via Wikimedia Commons).

Giuseppe Mazzuoli (1644–1725)

Sculptor. He is thought to have been born in Volterra, although soon after his birth his family moved to Siena where his architect father had been engaged to rebuild Prince Mattia’s palazzo. After initial training in Siena, Mazzuoli relocated to Rome where he entered the workshop of Ercole Ferrata. In 1675, he became a member of the Congregazione dei Virtuosi and in 1679 a member of the Accademia di San Luca. He is said to have concurrently run two workshops, one in Siena during the summer, the other in Rome in the winter. In 1679–89, he was engaged on a cycle of 12 marble statues of the Apostles for Siena Cathedral; no longer deemed stylistically appropriate by the late nineteenth century, they were purchased as a group by Father Charles Bowden and relocated to Brompton Oratory, London. One other major work remains in Siena, the Dead Christ, c.1673, for Santa Maria della Scala; the rest are in Rome: ‘Charity’, 1673–75, for Bernini’s Monument to Alexander VII in St Peter’s; statues of St John the Baptist and St John the Evangelist, 1677–79, for the Church of Gesù e Maria; a statue of ‘Clemency’, c.1684, for Mattia de’ Rossi’s Monument to Pope Clement X, St Peter’s; a statue of St Philip, 1711, for San Giovanni in Laterano, Rome; and the Monument to Angelo Altieri and his wife Laura Carpegna, 1709, for Santa Maria in Campitelli.

Sources: Butzek, M., ‘Giuseppe Mazzuoli e le statue degli Apostoli del Duomo di Siena’, Prospettiva, no. 61 (January 1991), pp. 75–89; Oxford Art Online: Benezit Dictionary of Artists and Grove Art Online.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Meridian Bronze Foundry (est. 1967)

Bronze foundry established by Jack and Megan Crofton in Greenwich, their choice of name for the foundry inspired by its proximity to the prime meridian. In 1969, they moved to larger premises in Consort Road, Peckham, initially adjacent to the Corinthian Bronze Foundry and then expanding into part of those premises following Corinthian’s closure in 1971. The foundry was bought out by Morris Singer in 1999, the Croftons staying on for a short while as managers. In its heyday, Meridian’s output had been second only to Morris Singer’s in the United Kingdom. A small selection of its most important public sculpture commissions would include Franta Belsky’s Winston Churchill, 1969, Fulton, Missouri, and Earl Mountbatten, 1983, off Horse Guard’s Parade, London; Ivor Roberts-Jones’s Winston Churchill, 1973, Parliament Square, and his Field Marshal Slim, 1990, and Viscount Alanbrooke, 1993, both Whitehall; James Butler’s President Kenyatta, 1973, Nairobi, Kenya, his King Richard III, 1980, Leicester, Field Marshal Alexander, 1985, Wellington Barracks, London, and John Wilkes, 1988, Fetter Lane; Elisabeth Frink’s Paternoster, 1975, Paternoster Square, and Horse and Rider, 1975, New Bond Street Town Square (formerly sited in Dover Street); John Mills’s Blitz: The National Firefighters’ Memorial, 1990–91, Sermon Lane, City of London; and Angela Conner’s Twelve Responses to Tragedy, 1986, Cromwell Gardens, South Kensington, and General Charles de Gaulle, 1993, Carlton Gardens, London.

Sources: James, D.S, ‘Foundries’, Arts Review, 13 February 1970, pp. 70–71, 87; NPG British Bronze Sculpture Founders.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Leonard Stanford Merrifield (1880–1943)

Merrifield was born in Wyck Rissington, Gloucestershire. After training as a stone carver, he attended Cheltenham School of Art. He then relocated to London, studying, firstly at the City & Guilds of London Art School under W.S. Frith and then at the RA Schools, where he won the Landseer scholarship and the Armitage prize. He initially found employment in Goscombe John’s studio, but by 1891 was working independently as a stone carver in Fulham. Merrifield showed regularly at the RA summer exhibitions from 1906. In 1913, he was one of ten sculptors selected to provide statues for Cardiff City Hall, his contribution being Williams Pantycelyn. He was elected FRBS in 1926. He executed numerous war memorials, including, in Cornwall, Newlyn (1920) and the Duke of Cornwall’s Light Infantry, Bodmin (1922); in Ireland, Comber and Holywood, both County Down (both 1922) and Lurgan, County Armagh (1928); in Buckinghamshire, Burnham (1920); and in Uttarakhand, India, the Garwhal Rifles (1923). Other public statues include Ellis Humphrey Evans, Trawsfynydd, Gwynedd, Wales (1923) and Richard Trevithick, Camborne, Cornwall (1928). Merrifield was at Stamford Bridge Studios, Fulham, by 1906, moving in 1912 to 116d King’s Road and finally, from 1924, 48 Glebe Place, Chelsea. During the Second World War he was a civil defence warden, and had been present at his local ARP post earlier on the day that he died. His memorial service at St Luke’s Church, Chelsea, was well attended by family members, local dignitaries, fellow artists and civil defence wardens. At the time of his death, he was working on a statue of Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith for the House of Commons. Merrifield’s marble statue, The Nymph, c.1921, is in Chelsea Library, a gift from his widow to the Metropolitan Borough of Chelsea in 1946.

Sources: Mapping Sculpture; Welsh Historical Sculpture: Welsh Historical Sculpture presented to the City of Cardiff by Lord Rhondda of Llanwern … on the 27th October 1916, Cardiff, 1916; Who Was Who.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Thomas Milnes (c.1810–1888)

Sculptor born in Tickhill, Yorks, the son of a stonemason. The year of Milnes’s birth given both in Gunnis and in Roscoe, 1813, is based on the fact that Milnes gave his age as 28 on his entry into the RA Schools in 1841. Chris Bell, a descendent of the sculptor, has discovered, however, that Milnes was baptised on 26 January 1810, suggesting 1809 for his year of birth. Bell presumes the date on Milnes’s tombstone in Kensal Green Cemetery, 21 December 1810, to have been supplied by his widow (his third wife) who, while knowing her husband’s birthday, was mistaken about his birth year. Milnes first came to public notice when his entry for the 1844 Westminster Hall competition, a group entitled The Death of Harold, was savaged by the Literary Gazette. Despite this inauspicious start he nevertheless won two important commissions in the late 1840s, Portland stone statues of Admiral Lord Nelson (1847) for Norwich and the Duke of Wellington (1848) for the Tower of London, now at the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich. In 1858, the government invited Milnes to model four lions for the base of Nelson’s Column in Trafalgar Square; although it is not known how he received such a prestigious commission, it may be significant that the sculptor who recommended him for entry into the RA Schools, Edward Hodges Baily, was also the sculptor of the column’s crowning figure. Unfortunately for Milnes, his models were considered unsuitable and the commission passed to Edwin Landseer. However, Titus Salt, who two years earlier had commissioned Milnes to carve his portrait bust (now United Reformed Church, Saltaire, Yorks) purchased the four lions, which were then executed in sandstone, for his workers’ village, Saltaire. Two of them, representing respectively Vigilance and Determination, are now outside the former Factory School and the other two, War and Peace, are outside Victoria Hall. Although rejected as supporters for Nelson’s Column – possibly because they lacked the requisite architectural calm – the Art Journal (1869, p. 159) thought they compared ‘by no means unfavourably with those in Trafalgar Square’. Milnes’s funerary commissions include a free-standing monument to Alfred Cooke, 1854, Kensal Green Cemetery (now ruinous) and a wall monument to the architect and engineer George Knowles (d. 1856) in St John’s Church (built by Knowles), Sharow, Yorks, this latter featuring a dramatic relief of a bridge succumbing to a raging torrent (presumably a symbol of death more suitable to an engineer than the traditional broken column). Milnes showed at the Great Exhibition of 1851 and also the International Exhibition of 1862, and was a regular exhibitor at the RA (26 works, mostly busts, 1842–66).

Sources: Bell, C., ‘Thomas Milnes, c.1810–1888. The nearly man of British sculpture’, The Saltaire Village Website, World Heritage Site; Cocke, R., Public Sculpture of Norfolk and Suffolk, Liverpool, 2013; Gunnis, R., Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660–1951, London, [1968]; Mapping Sculpture; Roscoe et al, A Biographical Dictionary of Sculptors in Britain 1660–1851, New Haven and London, 2009; Victorian Web.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

William Mitchell (1925–2020)

Sculptor and designer born in London. He began his art studies in the 1950s, firstly at the Southern College of Art, Portsmouth, and subsequently the Royal College of Art, where he won the Abbey Award, a fourth-year scholarship which enabled him to complete his studies at the British School at Rome. Following his return from Italy, he was taken on as design consultant in the LCC architects department, creating sculptural finishes for the many new developments then under construction across London. In the early 1960s he established his own company, the William Mitchell Design Consultants Group, to produce sculptures in wood, marble, brick, glass-reinforced-plastic and concrete. Many of his sculptures have been grade II listed by Historic England; examples include Corn King and Spring Queen sculptures, 1964, former Cement & Concrete Association building, Wexham, Buckinghamshire (listed 1998); three totem sculptures, 1966, Allerton Building, University of Salford (listed 2012); a mural, 1966, on the former Three Tuns pub, Coventry (listed 2009); and Story of Wool, 1968, a mural over the porch of the International Wool Secretariat building, Ben Rhydding, Ilkley, Yorkshire (listed 2015). Mitchell also executed architectural sculpture, 1967, for the Roman Catholic Cathedral, Liverpool, and a Stations of the Cross, 1973, for Clifton Cathedral, Bristol. For many years, he was artistic design adviser to Mohammed Al Fayed, owner of Harrods, 1985–2010. Following the death in a car crash in 1997 of Fayed’s son, Emad (‘Dodi’), and Diana, Princess of Wales, Fayed commissioned Mitchell to create a sculpture, Innocent Victims, alluding to his unfounded belief that the British royal family had ordered the couple’s murder. Erected between the escalators in Harrods’ Egyptian Room (for which Mitchell had also provided all the ornamentation), it was removed following the takeover by Qatari Holdings in 2018.

Sources: Cavanagh, T., Public Sculpture of Liverpool, Liverpool, 1997; Cavanagh, T., Public Sculpture of South London, Liverpool, 2007; Lloyd, F., et al, Public Sculpture of Outer South and West London, Liverpool, 2011; Noszlopy, G.T., Public Sculpture of Birmingham (ed. J. Beach), Liverpool, 1998; Noszlopy, G.T., Public Sculpture of Warwickshire, Coventry and Solihull, Liverpool, 2003; Seddon, J., et al, Public Sculpture of Sussex, Liverpool, 2014; White, D., et al, Public Sculpture of Sheffield and South Yorkshire, Liverpool, 2015; Wyke, T., Public Sculpture of Greater Manchester, Liverpool, 2004; relevant Historic England list entries.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

William Mitchell holding the Precast Award for 2014, which had just been presented to him by the Concrete Society (photo: Elaine Toogood).

Leonid Molodozhanyn / Leo Mol (1915–2009)

Winnipeg-based sculptor, ceramicist and stained-glass designer born in Polonne, Ukraine. He was taught to model in clay by his father, a potter, but at 15, began learning his craft as a sculptor, firstly with Wilhelm Frass in Vienna and then Fritz Klimsch in Berlin. Molodozhanyn attended the Leningrad Academy of Arts, 1936–40, but at the outbreak of war with Germany was conscripted. He married in 1943 and in 1945 he and his wife fled, firstly to Holland and then, in 1948, to Canada. It was at this point that he changed his name to Leo Mol. He had his first exhibition (ceramics) in Winnipeg, but afterwards established a reputation as a portrait sculptor, using a modified lost wax process. He won an international competition for a memorial to the Ukrainian poet and artist, Taras Shevchenko, for Washington DC (unveiled 1964), with replicas following for Buenos Aires, Argentina (1971), and Prudentópolis, Brazil (1989); in 2000, he presented a fourth cast to St Petersburg. Other public statues include Queen Elizabeth II, 1970, Winnipeg; John Diefenbaker, 1986, Ottawa; and St Volodymyr, 1987, Holland Park Avenue, London. In 1992, the Leo Mol sculpture studio and garden was established in Assiniboine Park, Winnipeg (CPRA Award of Excellence for Innovation in 1995). In 2002, his bronze Lumberjacks (1990) was featured on a Canadian postage stamp. Mol received honorary doctorates from the universities of Winnipeg, Alberta and Manitoba; was appointed Officer of the Order of Canada (1989); and was awarded the Order of Manitoba and made an honorary academician of the Canadian Portrait Academy (both 2002). He was a member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts and the Allied Artists of America, and a one-time president of the Manitoba Society of Artists and the Sculptors’ Society of Canada.

Sources: Internet Encyclopedia of Ukraine (updated 2014); Mayes, A., ‘Accomplished Artist: Leo Mol was Manitoba’s best-known and most honoured sculptor’, 7 July 2009, Winnipeg Free Press; Wikipedia

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Leo Mol in his studio in Winnipeg, Canada (photo: public domain).

Paul Raphael Montford (1868–1938)

Sculptor and teacher born in Kentish Town, the son of the sculptor Horace Montford. He was taught modelling by his father and learnt to draw at the Lambeth School of Art, 1884–85. In 1887, he entered the RA Schools on a British Institution Scholarship and in 1891 won the RA’s Gold Medal and Travelling Studentship for Composition in Sculpture (for his group, Jacob Wrestling with an Angel). Throughout the 1890s, he shared a studio with his father, firstly at Battersea and then from c.1903 at Clapham. From 1898 to 1903, he taught modelling at South West London (Chelsea) Polytechnic. Impressed with the monuments that he had seen on his European travels, he decided to specialise in architectural figure sculpture. He initially enjoyed considerable success, working with some of the leading architects of the day. For E.W. Mountford he executed 10 allegorical figures for the façade of the Battersea Polytechnic Institute, 1890–93, plus reliefs on Battersea Town Hall, 1892, and the Northampton Institute (now City University), Clerkenwell, 1896; in each of these he was assisted by his father. For Aston Webb he executed relief figures representing William Caxton and George Heriot, 1905, for the Exhibition Road façade of the V&A Museum, and all the architectural sculpture for the Royal School of Mines, South Kensington, including two figure groups supporting colossal busts of Sir Julius Wernher and Alfred Beit either side of the main entrance, c.1916. For Lanchester, Stewart and Rickards, he executed relief groups, 1901–05, for Cardiff City Hall, and in 1908 the attic relief for J.M. Brydon’s arched screen, 1908, across King Charles Street, Whitehall. By 1923, however, Montford was finding it difficult to secure new commissions in England, and so emigrated to Australia, his most important commissions there being war memorials at Camperdown (1927–29) and Melbourne (1927–32). M.H. Spielmann’s assessment of Montford from the earlier part of his career (1901) remains valid; his work was, he wrote, was ‘excellent in drawing, and though a little academic and not strikingly original, it is decorative in character and vigorous in conception and handling.’

Sources: ‘Battersea and Art. A Chat with Mr. Paul Montford’, South London Press, 19 August 1893, p. 5; Builder, 28 January 1938, p. 196 (obit.); Giddings, G., ‘Paul Raphael Montford, Sculptor’, Architects’ Journal, vol. lvi, no. 1457, 6 December 1922, pp. 789–92; McKenzie, R., Public Sculpture of Glasgow, Liverpool, 2002; Mapping Sculpture; Moriarty, C., The Commemorative Sculpture of Paul Montford, University of Brighton and Shrine of Remembrance, Melbourne, 2017; Parkes, K., Sculpture of To-Day, London, 1921, vol. 1; Spielmann, M.H., British Sculpture and Sculptors of To-Day, London, 1901; Who Was Who; Zimmer, J., ‘Montford, Paul Raphael (1868–1938)’, 1986, online 2006, Australian Dictionary of Biography; information from Royal Academy of Arts archives.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Francis (‘Frank’) Wollaston Moody (1824–1886)

A designer, painter and teacher, he was the son of the rector of Chartham, Kent, and was educated at Eton College. He then spent a year studying with the painter C.W. Cope RA before entering the National Art Training School (NATS), South Kensington. In 1863, Moody’s talent brought him to the attention of Richard Redgrave who introduced him to Godfrey Sykes and he was taken on as an assistant. Moody’s work was thereafter much influenced by Sykes and Sykes’s master, Alfred Stevens, and he followed a similar, but distinctive, style based on the art of the Italian Renaissance. In 1865, he designed the South Kensington Museum’s Ceramic Staircase. He was appointed Instructor in Decorative Art at NATS and some of the more advanced students were selected to assist him in his own work for the decoration of the museum and its local branches, for example, at Bethnal Green, where the students executed the mosaic panels to Moody’s designs. In 1871, Henry Cole commissioned Moody to prepare designs in sgraffito for the new Science Schools building (1871–72), its success leading to similar work on the National Training School for Music (1874–75). Moody was, by all accounts, a brilliant and inspirational teacher and in 1873, published a successful volume on decorative design, Lectures and Lessons on Art. He exhibited occasionally, from 1850 to 1877, at the RA, the British Institution and the Suffolk Street Gallery.

Sources: The Athenaeum, 21 August 1886, p. 249; Gibbons, O., ‘An Art Teacher: the late F.W. Moody’, Magazine of Art, 1893, pp. 404–08; Marsden, C., ‘Godfrey Sykes and his studio at the South Kensington Museum’, in M. Pye and L. Sandino (eds.), Artists Work in Museums: histories, interventions, subjectivities, Bath, 2013, pp. 48–62; Physick, J., The Victoria and Albert Museum: The History of its Building, London, 1982.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Morris Art Bronze Foundry (active 1921–1927)

Bronze foundry formerly based in Dorset Road, Lambeth. It was established in 1921 with financial backing from the William Morris Company (Westminster) Ltd, whose speciality was ornamental metal work and stained glass (as Duncan James has pointed out, this was not the William Morris, though Morris undoubtedly took no great pains to disabuse potential clients from such a favourable misapprehension). The first manager, responsible for setting up the foundry, was Leonard Grist, who had served his apprenticeship and risen to the level of foreman at J.W. Singer’s foundry. Given the specialised nature of the skills required by an art foundry, Grist had no alternative but to poach his craftsmen from his old employer and also from Singer’s chief rival, A.B. Burton, of Thames Ditton. The Morris Art Bronze Foundry soon acquired a reputation for skilful handling of both sand casting and lost wax and won many of the most prestigious public commissions, including the memorial to William Lister, 1922, by Sir Thomas Brock, London; the statue of Lord Ronaldshay, c.1924, by John Tweed, Bombay, India; the memorial to the Bishop of Coventry, 1925, by William Hamo Thornycroft, Coventry Cathedral; and numerous war memorials, including Chatham, Plymouth and Portsmouth, all 1923–24, by Henry Poole; Ilford, 1924, by Charles Wheeler; and the Machine Gun Corps, 1925, by Francis Derwent Wood and The Guards Division, 1923–26 by Gilbert Ledward, both London. Ledward’s Awakening, Ropers Gardens, Chelsea Embankment, had been one of the foundry’s earliest casts, c.1922. Grist left in 1925 to set up the Corinthian Bronze Foundry. In 1927, J. W. Singer, unable to compete from its remote location in Frome, sold off the art foundry part of its business to William Morris & Co and the amalgamated foundry continued as the Morris Singer Company.

Sources: James, D.S., A Century of Statues. The history of the Morris Singer Foundry, Basingstoke, Hants, 1984; NPG British Bronze Sculpture Founders.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Morris Singer (est. 1927)

Art foundry formed from an amalgamation of J. W. Singer and The Morris Art Bronze Foundry, operating from Dorset Road, Lambeth, until relocation to Basingstoke, Hampshire, in 1967. In 1993, the foundry was put into receivership but, despite financial problems, relocated in 1999 to a new site at nearby Lasham. In 2005, the Morris Singer name was acquired by Art Founders Ltd and, as Morris Singer Art Founders, moved to Braintree, Essex. However, by 2010 the foundry had again gone into administration and its assets were purchased by Nasser Azam, who formed a new business, Zahra Modern Art Foundries. This too went into liquidation, in 2013. Meanwhile, in 2011, John Berelowitz had set up a new incarnation of the old foundry which began trading as Morris Singer Art Foundry Ltd on the old foundry’s Lasham site. In its early years the foundry had acquired and maintained its commercial primacy by its expeditious adoption of new techniques. Most of the foundry’s work has been in bronze, although some important pieces have been cast in aluminium, e.g., Jacob Epstein’s Les Majestas, 1956, Llandaff Cathedral, and Mario Armengol’s ten 6.75m-high figures for Expo ’67 (now at Calgary, Canada). In its prime Britain’s most successful foundry, it was used by most of the country’s leading twentieth-century sculptors at one time or another.

Sources: Daily Telegraph, 11 December 1993, p. 11; James, D.S., A Century of Statues. The history of the Morris Singer Foundry, Basingstoke, Hants, 1984; Morris Singer Foundry website; NPG British Bronze Sculpture Founders.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Nautilus Fine Art Foundry Ltd (1989–2003)

Bronze foundry established initially at New Cross, South London, by Paul Joyce and Robert Moule. In 1998, the foundry relocated to Braintree, Essex, following incorporation into the Finch Seaman Group. The foundry specialised in lost wax, but also undertook sand casting. Public sculptures include John Doubleday’s statues of Sherlock Holmes, Baker Street Station forecourt, London, and Gerald Durrell, Jersey Zoo, both 1999; Francis Siegelman’s Billy Bremner, Leeds Football Club, 1999; William Pye’s Sibirica, 1999, Holland Park, and Kanagawa, Selsey, West Sussex, 2000; Andrew Burton’s Annunciation and Charles Hadcock’s Caesura VI, both for Holland Park, 2000; Richard Rome’s Millennium Fountain, Cannizaro Park, Wimbledon, 2000; and Eilis O’Connell’s Unfurl, 2000, Palace Gate, Kensington. In July 2003, the company merged with Burleighfield Arts to form Art Founders Ltd.

Sources: Nautilus Foundry (letter to author from Paul Joyce, Nautilus Fine Art Foundry Ltd, 9 October 2002, plus accompanying brochure); Seddon, J., et al, Public Sculpture of Sussex, Liverpool, 2014.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Eilis O’Connell (b. 1953)

Sculptor using a wide diversity of materials, born in Londonderry, Northern Ireland. She studied at the Crawford School of Fine Art, Cork, 1970–77, with a year at Massachusetts College of Art and Design, Boston, 1974–75. She was awarded two travelling scholarships, the first by the Arts Council of Northern Ireland, to the British School at Rome (1983–84) and the second, the Irish Arts Council’s PSI Fellowship for New York (1987–88). A two-year residency at Delfina Studios, London, in 1988, led to a long-term stay in the country, returning to live in Ireland in 2002. She has had many solo exhibitions and taken part in numerous group shows, as well as representing Ireland in Biennales in Paris (1982), Sao Paolo (1985) and Venice (2002). Awards include the Wapping Art Trust’s Art and Work Award, for Nyama, at 99 Bishopsgate, 1996, and the Royal Society of Arts Award, 1998. O’Connell’s sensitivity to scale and context has led to many public commissions, the majority in Ireland since her return to live there. Commissions in Great Britain include Secret Station, 1992, Eastern Gateway, Cardiff; Zuni-Zenor, 1993, 10 Fleet Place, London; Vowel of Earth Dreaming its Root, 1998, Marsh Wall, Isle of Dogs, London; Helix, 1998, 1 Curzon Street, London; Pero’s Footbridge (with Ove Arup & Partners) 1993–99, Bristol; Unfurl, 2000, Palace Gate, Kensington; Shear, 2001, Bevois Valley, Southampton; and Everchanging, 2004, Newcastle Upon Tyne.

Sources: Eilis O’Connell website; Buckman, D., Artists in Britain since 1945 (2 vols: A–L, M–Z), Bristol, 2006.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Harold Wilson Parker (1896–1980)

Sculptor and medal-maker, born in Newington, south London. He studied art at, successively, Walthamstow School of Art, St Martin’s School of Art, Central School of Arts and Crafts, Sir John Cass School of Art and the RCA. From the 1940s until at least 1955 he taught at Goldsmiths’ College, his considerable skills as a teacher fondly recalled many years later by the sculptor Charlotte Mayer. His bronzed plaster standing nude Flossie remains on display at Goldsmiths’. Parker exhibited at the RA, 1925–47. He was elected ARBS 1944, FRBS 1946, Council member 1948–49, and president, 1953–58. His most famous work – albeit his authorship is scarcely known – was undoubtedly the wren design on the reverse of the farthing coin, which was commissioned in 1937 and remained in use until the coin ceased to be legal tender in 1960. His George Lansbury Memorial plaque was commissioned for Hyde Park Lido Pavilion in 1951.

Sources: Buckman, D., Artists in Britain since 1945 (2 vols: A–L, M–Z), Bristol, 2006; Flynn, T., Charlotte Mayer. In Essence (Pangolin Gallery), 2013, p. 26; Mapping Sculpture

T. Cavanagh November 2022

(Alfred) Bertram Pegram (1873–1941)

Sculptor. He studied at the RA Schools, 1895–99, winning prizes in each year (including silver medals in 1896 and 1899), and also in Paris. He was among the sculptors selected by Aston Webb to carve relief figures for the façades of the V&A extension in 1905; Pegram’s were John Flaxman and Francis Chantrey, both Cromwell Road. His most important commission was for the bronze figures on Sir Ninian Comper’s Welsh National War Memorial, 1928, Cardiff. He also executed the Memorial to Mary Brinsmade Brown, Gunn Memorial Library, Washington, Connecticut (illus.The Studio, December 1915, p. 191). Examples of his work are in the National Museum and Gallery of Wales, Cardiff. He was an ARBS from 1905 (FRBS from 1938) and a Member of the AWG from 1906. He was a cousin of Henry Alfred Pegram.

Sources: Mapping Sculpture; Waters, G.M., Dictionary of British Artists Working 1900–1950, Eastbourne, 1975; Royal Academy of Arts website and archives.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Henry Alfred Pegram (1862–1937)

Sculptor. He studied at the West London School of Art, then in 1881 entered the RA Schools where he was awarded prizes in 1882, 1884, and 1886. On leaving the RA Schools he worked for four years as an assistant in Hamo Thornycroft’s studio. Pegram was a member of the AWG, 1890–1904, and was elected ARA in 1904 and RA in 1922. From 1884 to 1936 he showed 160 works at the RA summer exhibitions. In 1891, he was a founder member of the Chelsea Arts Club. Two examples of Pegram’s earlier work, in which he shows the influence of Alfred Gilbert, and which are generally considered to be among his most important, are a bronze relief, Ignis fatuus; 1889, and a marble group, Sibylla fatidica, 1904, both Chantrey Bequest purchases for the Tate Gallery. The authorship of the Monument to Ninon Michaelis,1903, Kensal Green Cemetery, was forgotten until Glenn Benson’s research in the 2000s reconnected it to Pegram; as recently as 2001 the monument’s high quality had convinced scholars that it could only be by a continental sculptor. In 1909–11, he executed a series of Portland stone figures for the exterior of Basil Champneys’ Rhodes Building, Oriel College, Oxford, including Cardinal Newman and Cecil Rhodes, the latter of which was the subject of an unsuccessful 2016 student campaign to have it removed on the grounds that the statue amounted to a celebration of British colonialism. In 1913, Pegram was one of ten sculptors selected to provide statues for Cardiff City Hall, his contribution being Llewellyn the Last Prince. Other public sculptures by Pegram include Into the Silent Land, 1905, Golder’s Green Crematorium; Sir Thomas Browne, 1905, Hay Hill, Norwich; Sir John Campbell, 1906, Auckland, New Zealand; Monument to Edith Cavell, 1917, Tombland, Norwich; the crowning ‘Victory’ figure on the Cunard War Memorial, 1921, Liverpool; and Hylas, 1922, St John’s Lodge, Regent’s Park. He was a cousin of Alfred Bertram Pegram.

Sources: Beattie, S., The New Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1983; Curl, J.S., (ed.), Kensal Green Cemetery, 2001; Mapping Sculpture; Sharp, R., ‘Pegram, Henry Alfred (1862–1937)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; Welsh Historical Sculpture: Welsh Historical Sculpture presented to the City of Cardiff by Lord Rhondda of Llanwern … on the 27th October 1916, Cardiff, 1916.

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Henry Alfred Pegram Elliott and Fry, albumen cabinet card, c. 1903 (photo: © National Portrait Gallery, London).

John Birnie Philip (1824–1875)

Sculptor, born in London. He entered the Government School of Design at Somerset House in 1842 at the age of 17. His tutor, the painter J.R. Herbert, introduced him to Pugin who employed him in his wood carving department at the Houses of Parliament. Philip visited Rome, 1848–49. He enjoyed a long and fruitful collaboration with George Gilbert Scott and executed for him sculpture for church restorations, e.g., Evangelist figures and St Michael overcoming Satan tympanum relief for St Michael Cornhill, c.1856–1860; the font, reredos, and Katherine Parr Monument for St Mary’s Church, Sudeley, Gloucestershire, 1859–63; and the figures on the crossing screen (manufactured by F. Skidmore) at Lichfield Cathedral, 1859–63. He also executed sculpture for Scott’s public monuments, e.g., the Westminster Scholars Crimean War Memorial, 1859–61, Broad Sanctuary, Westminster; and the Albert Memorial, 1862–72; and also sculptures for Scott’s buildings, e.g., the spandrel reliefs (shared with H.H. Armstead) on the Colonial Office at Whitehall, 1873–75. Philip also worked for Francis Butler, modelling a figure of Peace, 1871–73, for his fountain in West Smithfield Gardens, City of London. In addition, he executed a handful of public statues: Richard Oastler, 1869, Bradford; Robert Hall, 1870, Leicester; and Colonel Akroyd, 1875, Akroydon, near Halifax. This last was completed, following Philip’s death from bronchitis, by his chief assistant modeller, Ceccardo Egidio Fucigna; other known assistants in his large studio include Robert Glassby and Edwin Roscoe Mullins. Birnie Philip lived at 1 Roehampton Place, Vauxhall Bridge Road (c.1858–c. 1863); West Pavilion, Hans Place (c.1867– c.1870); and Merton Villa, 280A King’s Road (c.1871–1875). Two oil-on-board paintings by James Digman Wingfield of the interior of his studio at Merton Villa are held at Chelsea Library. These were presented by Philip’s younger daughter, Rosalind, his executrix; his older daughter, Beatrice, was married to the architect E.W. Godwin and following his death, to the painter James McNeil Whistler. Birnie Philip is buried in Brompton Cemetery.

Sources: The Academy, 13 March 1875, p. 278 (obit. by W.M. Rossetti); Art Journal, 1 May 1875, p. 144 (obit.); ILN, 13 March 1875, p. 258 (obit.); London Reader, 10 April 1875, p. 564 (obit.); Mapping Sculpture; Oxford Art Online – Grove Art Online; Roscoe, I., A Biographical Dictionary of Sculptors in Britain 1660–1851, New Haven and London, 2009; Stocker, M., ‘Philip, John Birnie (1824–1875)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; Ward-Jackson, P., Public Sculpture of the City of London, Liverpool, 2003.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Charles James Pibworth (1878–1958)

Sculptor and painter born in Barton Regis, Gloucestershire (now part of Bristol). He studied initially at Bristol School of Art, in c.1897 winning a scholarship to the RCA and in 1899 entering the RA Schools (Landseer Scholarship 1901). Pibworth was a regular exhibitor at the RA and Royal West of England Academy (associate member of the latter from c.1904 and professional member from c.1910). He was a member of the RBS from 1907 and of the AWG from 1910. Pibworth worked chiefly as an architectural sculptor in stone and, in the first decade of the twentieth century worked frequently for the architect Charles Holden, including executing allegorical figures for the Law Society Extension, Carey Street, City of London (1902–04); relief panels of figures from English literature for Bristol Central Library (1905) and Euterpe for the Orchestral Association building, Archer Street, Westminster (1912). He was a resident of Chelsea for most of his adult life – at 14A Cheyne Row, c.1904–c.1943, and subsequently at 295 King’s Road.

Sources: Beattie, S., The New Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1983; Mapping Sculpture; Royal Academy of Arts website; Who Was Who.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Frederick William Pomeroy (1856–1924)

Sculptor born in London. From c.1877 to 1880, he served an apprenticeship with a firm of architectural carvers, while in the evenings attending the South London Technical Art School, learning modelling under Jules Dalou and W.S. Frith. Pomeroy attended the RA Schools, 1881–85, winning, in his final year, the Gold Medal and Travelling Studentship. He travelled to France and Italy, studying in Paris under Emmanuel Frémiet and Antonin Mercié. In 1888, as one of several sculptors working under the overall supervision of his former tutor, Frith, Pomeroy executed ‘Australia’, one of four allegorical groups on Doulton & Co’s Victoria Fountain in Glasgow. He exhibited at the RA from 1885; with the Arts and Crafts Society from 1888; and was a medallist at the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1900. He executed sculpture for a number of architects, notably J.D. Sedding, in Holy Trinity, Sloane Street, Chelsea, 1890s, and E.W. Mountford, on Paisley Town Hall, 1890; Sheffield Town Hall, 1890–94; Liverpool Museum Extension and Central Technical School, 1896–1901; and the Central Criminal Court, Old Bailey, London, 1905–06 (the famous gilt bronze Justice surmounting the dome is Pomeroy’s). His portrait statues include Dean Hook, 1900, Leeds; W.E. Gladstone, 1900, Houses of Parliament; and Monsignor Nugent, 1906, Liverpool. His most famous ideal sculpture is probably Perseus (shown at the RA 1898; life-size bronze in the National Museum of Wales, Cardiff; numerous reductions). He was a Member of the AWG from 1887 (Master in 1908); was elected ARA 1906 and RA 1917; and in 1911 was a founding member of the Society of Portrait Sculptors. Pomeroy resided at 15 Kensington Square from c.1908 until his death and ran studios at 1 Wentworth Studios, Manresa Road, Chelsea, c.1892 to 1905, and 15 Douro Place, Victoria Road, Kensington, 1905–c.1910.

Sources: Beattie, S., The New Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1983; Gray, A.S., Edwardian Architecture, London, 1985; Mapping Sculpture; Stocker, M., ‘Pomeroy, Frederick William (1856–1924)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; Who Was Who.

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Robert Anning Bell, Frederick William Pomeroy, 1908. Painted to mark Pomeroy’s year as Master of the Art Workers Guild. (Photo: pubic domain via Wikimedia Commons)

Donald Potter (1902–2004)

Sculptor, born at Newington, Kent. In c.1915, his family moved to Chingford, Essex. Here he joined the local scout troop and in 1919 obtained employment as a trainer at Gilwell Park, Essex, the international centre for training scoutmasters. Baden-Powell noticed Potter’s self-taught woodcarving skills and persuaded him to carve, among other things, the totem poles for the 1929 world jamboree. Potter left Gilwell in 1930 and, wanting to learn stone carving, approached Eric Gill. Gill took Potter on as an assistant and after six months accepted him as a collaborator, allocating to him many of his wood carving commissions. Potter’s experiences with Gill at Piggotts are contained in My Time with Eric Gill (1980). Potter left Piggotts in 1937 and by 1940 was art master and artist-in-residence at Bryanston School, Dorset. An inspirational teacher, his pupils included several leading designers, potters, sculptors, painters and architects of the next generation. Potter retired from teaching in 1984 and in 1997 the Don Potter Art School was inaugurated at Bryanston. In 2002, a centenary retrospective exhibition of his work was held at Dorset County Museum and on 7 June 2004, he died, aged 102. Potter’s works include a granite statue of Lord Baden-Powell, 1960, formerly outside Baden-Powell House, Queen’s Gate, Kensington, since 2021, Gilwell Park; and several commissions from the architect Richard Twentyman for sculptures at St. Martin’s, Parkfields, Wolverhampton, All Saints, Darlaston, Staffordshire, and Bushbury Crematorium, Wolverhampton. Potter also executed the Brownsea Island commemorative stone (marking the site of Baden-Powell’s first scout camp in 1907); a crucifix in walnut for the Rutland Chantry, St George’s Chapel, Windsor; and a 22-ft high Tree of Life for the grounds of Bryanston School.

Sources: MacCarthy, F., 8 June 2004 (obit.), The Guardian; Shrimpton, A., ‘Potter, Donald Steele [Don] (1902–2004)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2009.

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Donald Potter at the opening of the Don Potter Art School, Bryanston School, Dorset, October 1997 (photo: Jpbowen, CC BY-SA 4.0 via Wikimedia Commons).

Henry Prince & Co (fl. c.1864–75)

Art bronze foundry established by Henry Prince (c.1816/17–1875), engineer. Before setting up on his own, Prince had worked in partnership with Samuel Whitehouse, operating as Prince & Whitehouse, iron founders, at the Grove Foundry, Great Guildford Street, Southwark. The partnership was dissolved by mutual consent on 31 May 1859 and on 5 October 1863 the Grove Foundry was put up for auction. At about the same date or shortly after, Prince began trading as Henry Prince & Co, art bronze founders, at the Phoenix Foundry, in nearby Ewer Street, Southwark. The earliest of Prince’s bronze castings of which we have knowledge is J.H. Foley’s statue of Father Theobald Mathew, unveiled October 1864 in Cork, Republic of Ireland. Foley clearly appreciated the result, for from this date onwards, Prince became his foundry of choice, casting Sidney Herbert (1866, Waterloo Place, London); the 7th Earl of Carlisle (unveiled 1870, Brampton, Cumbria); the Irish National Memorial to Prince Albert (1871–72, Dublin); and the central figure of Prince Albert for the Albert Memorial (1875). Prince also cast Edward Wyon’s statue of Richard Green (1866, East India Dock Road); Marshall Wood’s Richard Cobden (1866, St Ann’s Square, Manchester); Matthew Noble’s Lord Palmerston (1867, Romsey, Hampshire); John Birnie Philip’s Richard Oastler (1867, Northgate, Bradford); Charles Bell Birch’s Samuel Taylor Chadwick (unveiled 1873, Bolton); and John Mossman’s figure and reliefs for James Sellars’ Stewart Memorial Fountain (dated 1872, Glasgow) and his statue of Alexander Wilson (1873, Paisley). As became the fashion among the more successful foundries, the running of the metal became a social occasion for subscribers and distinguished guests, as exemplified in the reports of the casting of the Cobden statue (see The Standard, 19 December 1866, p. 2, which also gives a detailed account of the whole casting process itself). Prince died suddenly on 15 March 1875 at the age of 58 during the casting of Foley’s bronze figure of Prince Albert for the Albert Memorial and was buried in the churchyard at St Mary’s, Wimbledon. The foundry seems to have ceased operating after this date.

Sources: London Gazette, 31 May 1859, p. 2161; Manchester Guardian, 12 August 1875, p. 5; Morning Post, 6 August 1866, p. 5; NPG British Bronze Sculpture Founders; The Times, 19 September 1863, p. 11.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

James Pulham & Son

Firm of landscape artists and artificial stone manufacturers. Originally known for the construction of rock gardens, grottoes and follies, they later expanded into the manufacture of fountains and a wide range of garden ornaments. There were four generations of Pulhams running the business, each one called James. The business was established by Suffolk-born James I (1793–1838) in London. On James I’s death, his son, James II (1820–1898), took over, moved the firm out to Broxbourne, Hertfordshire, and developed a hugely successful artificial stone which came to be known as Pulhamite. It was when James II’s son, James III (1845–1920), went into partnership with his father in 1865 that the firm became known as James Pulham & Son. The firm appears to have still been in business at late as c.1950.

Sources: Elliott, B., Garden History, vol. 40, no. 2 (Winter 2012), pp. 308–10; London Gardens Trust; The Pulham Legacy.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Pierre (or Pieter) Puyenbroeck (1804–1884)

Sculptor born in Louvain (died in Brussels). He trained with Gilles-Lambert Godecharle. In 1830, his entry for the Brussels Salon, Summer, was purchased by the Royal Park. In 1840, he established a large studio, one of the sculptors who acquired their skills there being Auguste Fraikin. The greater part of Puyenbroeck’s output was religious sculpture in various churches in Brussels; his most successful work in this field is generally held to be the Stations of the Cross in the Cathedral of SS. Michael and Gudula. For the façade of the same cathedral he carved figures of The Three Kings. Puyenbroeck also did the figures of Saint Augustine and Johannes Nepomuk on the façade of the church of Saint James on the Koudenberg. His statues for the Halle aux Draps (Lakenhalle or Cloth Hall) in Ypres were mostly destroyed during the First World War. He was a prolific portrait sculptor. In the Musées Royeaux des Beaux Arts, Brussels, are three of his marble busts: of his former master Godecharle (1837), of the painter Joseph Paelinck (1844) and of the museum’s first conservator, G.J.J. Bosschaert (after Godecharle). He executed the marble relief portrait of Emma Soyer for her monument (inaugurated 1844) in Kensal Green Cemetery and contributed a Cupid in the Rose to the 1862 International Exhibition in London.

Main sources: Oxford Art Online – Benezit Dictionary of Artists; Thieme-Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der Bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart, vol. 27 (Piermaria–Ramsdell), Leipzig, 1933; Verbraeken, P., Living Marble. Belgian Sculptors 1800–1930 (n.d.), p. 68.

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William Pye (b. 1938)

Sculptor born in London. He studied at Wimbledon School of Art, 1958–61, and the Royal College of Art, 1961–65, under Bernard Meadows. He subsequently taught at Central School of Art and Design, 1965–70, and Goldsmiths’ College, 1970–75, and was visiting professor at California State University, 1975–76. He made his name in the later 1960s with highly polished tubular forms in stainless steel, the most prominent example being Zemran, 1971, on the South Bank, one of a select group of post-war British sculptures awarded Grade II listing by Historic England in 2016. In the 1970s Pye explored kineticism, which had led by the early 1980s to his series of site-specific, water-based sculptures, major examples on public sites include Slipstream and Jetstream, 1987, Gatwick Airport North Terminal (ABSA Award and Art & Work Award, 1988); Sibirica, 1999, Holland Park; three pieces, 2007, in the Mariinsky Concert Hall, St Petersburg; Salisbury Cathedral font, 2008; Hypanthium, 2009, University of British Columbia Botanical Gardens, Vancouver; Vannpaviljong, 2011, Stromso Square, Drammen, Norway; Alchemilla, 2016, All England Lawn Tennis Club, Wimbledon; and Aquaverde, 2017, Grange Park, Toronto. Pye has exhibited widely both in the UK and abroad; his first solo exhibition was in 1966 (Redfern Gallery, London) and his first in the USA was in 1970 (Bertha Schaefer Gallery, New York). He was elected FRBS in 1992, honorary FRIBA in 1993, and president of the Hampshire Sculpture Trust in 2002. He was awarded the Prix de Sculpture at the 5th International Sculpture Exhibition, Budapest 1981; the Royal UENO Museum Award, Japan, 1989; and a lifetime Achievement Award from International Art Consultants, 2004.

Sources: William Pye website; William Pye: his work and his words, Sudbury, Suffolk, 2010; Who’s Who.

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William Pye, 2014 ((photo: © A.K.Purkiss)

Antonio Raggi (1624–1686)

Sculptor and stuccoist born at Vico Morcote, near Lugano. He moved to Rome in 1645, basing himself there for the rest of his life. He worked initially in Alessandro Algardi’s workshop, but in 1647 became one of 39 sculptors working for Gianlorenzo Bernini on the decorations for St Peter’s. Raggi rose to become Bernini’s chief assistant, working from his master’s drawings and models on such important pieces as the figure of the Danube (1650–51) for the Four Rivers Fountain in the Piazza Navona, Rome. In 1657, Raggi was elected to the Accademia di San Luca and in 1662 received his first independent commission, a life-size marble relief, the Death of St Cecilia (completed 1666) for S. Agnese in Agone, also Piazza Navona. In the same years, he executed in stucco, for the interior of the dome of S. Andrea in Quirinale, St Andrew in Glory, with a ring of supporting figures. A major work of the 1670s is his cycle of stucco figures in the clerestory of the nave and transept of Il Gesù, framing Gaulli’s ceiling fresco of the Adoration of the Name of Jesus. Raggi also worked for the architect Carlo Fontana, contributing all the sculpture for the Ginnetti Chapel in S. Andrea della Valle (1671–81), including the life-size marble figure of Cardinal Marzio Ginnetti kneeling at prayer, a compelling display of the portraitist Raggi at his best. His most important work in England is his effigy of Lady Jane Cheyne for her funerary monument, installed in 1672 in Chelsea Old Church.

Sources: Oxford Art Online: Benezit Dictionary of Artists and Grove Art Online; Wittkower, R., Art and Architecture in Italy 1600–1750, London (1958), 1982, pp. 310–12.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Ian Rank-Broadley (b. 1952)

Sculptor and medallist. He studied sculpture at Epsom School of Art, 1970–74, under Bruce McLean, and went on to postgraduate studies at Slade School of Art, 1974–76, under Reg Butler, Michael Kenny and John Davies; a Boise Travelling Scholarship funded visits to Naples, Florence, Venice and Paris, 1976–77. On his return he worked as an assistant to Reg Butler. In 1989, he was elected ARBS and in 1994, FRBS. In 1995, he was elected to the Art Workers Guild (committee member, 1999–2002; Trustee, 2002–05). He was made a Freeman of the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths (and granted Freedom of the City of London) in 1996, served on the Company’s Modern Collection Committee, 2004–10, and made a Liveryman, 2009. He was a Trustee, 2010–13, of the Prince’s School of Traditional Arts, London. His public sculptures include 14 bronze figures for the Armed Forces Memorial, 2007, National Memorial Arboretum, Alrewas, Staffordshire (Marsh Award for Excellence in Public Sculpture, 2008); a memorial to Dean Colet, 2010, St Paul’s Cathedral; Diana, Princess of Wales, 2021, Sunken Garden, Kensington Palace; and Licoricia and her son Asser, 2022, Winchester. Rank-Broadley’s breakthrough as a designer of coins came in 1997 when he won the Royal Mint competition for the new effigy of Queen Elizabeth II to be used on United Kingdom and Commonwealth coinage from 1998 (he was granted two sittings to help him refine his design); in 2012 he was recognised with a Lifetime Achievement Award by the Vicenza Numismatica.

Sources: Ian Rank-Broadley website; Rodgers, K., ‘Elizabeth II reaches reign milestone’, Numismatic News, 10 September 2015.

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Ian Rank Broadley (photo: Steve Russell Studios)

James Frank Redfern (1837–76)

Ecclesiastical and architectural sculptor born at Hartington, Derbyshire. In c.1856 his talent for sculpture was brought to the attention of the local landowner and MP, Alexander Beresford Hope, who paid for the young man to study in London, under J.R. Clayton, and in Paris, at Charles Gleyre’s atelier. Redfern exhibited regularly at the RA from 1859 onwards, mostly religious subjects with some portrait busts. His work for George Gilbert Scott, includes 60 figures for the west front of Salisbury Cathedral (1866–70); eight figures of the Virtues in gilded cast copper and four Lions in gilded bronze on the Albert Memorial (completed by 1872), the Apostles and Evangelists for the Octagon at Ely Cathedral (1868–76); the Evangelists plus SS Peter and Paul for the south porch of Gloucester Cathedral, plus figure groups for the reredos and figures for the sedilia (c.1870–75); and a Christ in Majesty for the chapter house at Westminster Abbey. Redfern also worked for Bodley and Garner, for example, executing figure carving for Holy Angels, Hoar Cross, Staffordshire (c.1873–76). Despite his steady employment by leading architects of the day and the considerable output of his studio, Redfern died in penury. Scott, one of his main employers, wrote: ‘I had thought him a successful man, but it turns out now that his spirits were broken by pecuniary distress, and that he had fallen into the hands of cruel usurers, who made his life a torment to him, and this so undermined his health that he fell a victim to some, otherwise slight, attack of indisposition.’

Sources: Hardy, E., ‘Redfern, James Frank (bap. 1837, d. 1876)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; Mapping Sculpture; Scott, G.G., Personal and Professional Recollections, London, 1879. p. 307; plus, relevant editions of Pevsner’s ‘Buildings of England’.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

John Wenlock Rollins (1862–1940)

Sculptor trained at Birmingham School of Art, then South London Technical Art School under W.S. Frith, and finally the RA Schools, 1885–89. In 1885 and 1886, he won prizes in the National Art Competitions. In 1892, he was assistant to Thomas Stirling Lee on the series of relief panels for the exterior of St George’s Hall, Liverpool. Rollins executed much of the carved sculpture on Charles Henman II’s Croydon Municipal Buildings (1894–96): reliefs on the Town Hall porch (with W. Aumonier), around the Borough Court entrance, on the Clock Tower and on the Library frontage plus, to the right of the Library entrance, a statue of John Whitgift. For Charles’s brother, William Henman, Rollins carved three figures for the central entrance porch of Birmingham General Hospital (1896–97; since demolished) and two caryatids for the same city’s Midland Hotel (1903). For Aston Webb, 1905, he carved relief figures of William of Wykeham and John Thorpe for the V&A Museum’s Cromwell Road frontage. His is also the bronze statue of Queen Victoria, c.1903, at the Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast. He exhibited at the RA 20 times between 1887 and 1913; his Sweet Song and Melody (RA 1904, no. 1679) was illustrated in Academy Architecture and Architectural Review, vol. 27, p. 119. Rollins lived for much of his adult life in Chelsea and South Kensington, working from Cedar Studios, Glebe Place, c.1891–c.1904, and subsequently 6 Wetherby Mews, c.1911–c.1911.

Sources: Beattie, S., The New Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1983; Gleichen, Lord E., London’s Open-Air Statuary, London, 1928; Lloyd, F., et al, Public Sculpture of Outer South and West London, Liverpool, 2011; Mapping Sculpture; Noszlopy, G., Public Sculpture of Birmingham (ed. J. Beach), Liverpool, 1998; Royal Academy Summer Exhibition: A Chronicle, 1769–2018.

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Pierre-Louis Rouillard (1820–1881)

Sculptor of animals who was born and died in Paris. In 1837, he entered the École des Beaux-Arts, where he was a pupil of Pierre-Jules Cortot. He first exhibited at the Salon of 1837, and in 1842 won a third-class medal. From 1840 to 1881, he was a professor of sculpture at the École des Arts décoratifs. He ran a large and successful studio producing mostly large-scale works in cast iron, often for architectural projects. In 1864, he was commissioned by Sultan Abdulaziz to make sculptures for various locations in Istanbul. In 1866, he was made a chevalier of the Légion d’Honneur. In Paris, his work can be found in the Louvre’s Cour Lefuel (1857–58; four groups of fighting animals at the foot of the ramp to the former stables and a tympanum relief over the entrance); on the Opéra Garnier (1869; eagles on the west façade) and on the forecourt of the Musée d’Orsay (1878; Horse with a Harrow); in Toulouse, in the Grand Rond (a dog and a wolf, each protecting their young); and in England, in Lister Park, Bradford, a Stag, and on the piers of the Queen’s Gate entrance to Kensington Gardens, two groups of a Doe and Fawn.

Sources: Nella Buscot; Oxford Art Online – Benezit Dictionary of Artists; Wikipedia.

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Samuel Ruddock (c.1828–1903)

Born in Horbury, Yorkshire, Ruddock was based in Lambeth by 1851, working firstly as a stone carver and then as a sculptor. He exhibited 34 works at the RA between 1856 and 1892, mostly religious, but with some ideal subjects. In 1862, he was awarded first prize in the carved stone panels section at the annual meeting to distribute prizes to ‘art-workmen’ at the Architectural Museum, South Kensington. By 1901, he was blind and living with his son, Oliver, also a sculptor. He was buried in Norwood Cemetery on 6 February 1903. His works include the Last Supperreredos, Trinity church, Ossett, Yorks (RA 1864); roundel with high relief bust of Christ, St Stephen’s church, Copley, Yorks (RA 1866); reredos, St James church, Louth (RA 1872); Death of St Joseph, high relief, Sligo Cathedral (RA 1874); The Good Samaritan, a relief for ‘the lodge of Consumptive Hospital, Brompton’ (RA 1877), now Royal Brompton Hospital, Sydney Street, Chelsea; and St Joseph with the infant Christ, Church of the Holy Name of Jesus, Manchester (RA 1879)

Sources: Art Journal, 1 April 1862, pp. 110–11; Mapping Sculpture; Royal Academy Summer Exhibition: A Chronicle, 1769–2018.

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Tommaso Rues (also Ruer, Ruez) (1636–1703)

Tommaso Rues was born in Brunico (or Bruneck) in the Italian province of South Tyrol. He trained in Venice, 1650–58, with the Bavarian stonecarver Giovanni Hach and later ran his own workshop in the San Giovanni Crisostomo district of Venice. A strong influence on his work was the Venice-based Flemish sculptor, Josse de Corte. Rues’s main works in Venice are: for Santa Maria della Salute, the Four Evangelists flanking the main entrance and a host of angels and several biblical heroines crowning the tympanum (1670s–early ’80s); for Il Redentore, figures of St. Mark and St. Francis for the façade (1678) and relief panels of Christ carrying the Cross and The Deposition for the high altar (1682); for the chapel of San Giovanni della Croce in Santa Maria di Nazareth (Church of the Scalzi), The Theological Virtues (1683); for the high altar of San Pantalon, St. Peter, St. John the Evangelist, St. Juliana and St. Paul; and for balustrade of the Porta di Terra at the Arsenal, figures of Vigilance and Abundance. Maichol Clemente has recently attributed to Rues on stylistic grounds, two marble busts, Diana and Minerva, at Waddesdon Manor, Bucks. Rues also executed the greater part of the sculpture on the Lady Altar, originally made for the church of San Domenico, Brescia, in 1693, since 1883 in Brompton Oratory, Kensington.

Sources: Clemente, M., ‘Tommaso Rues: contributo al catalogo’, Zbornik za umetnostno zgodovino (Nova vrsta), 49, 2013; Clemente, M., Tommaso Rues 1636-1703: A German Sculptor in Baroque Venice, Florence, 2016.

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Andrew Sabin (b. 1958)

Sculptor born in London. He began as a potter, studying under the Malaysian potter Poh Chap Yeap and selling his own work, 1976–78, in London and Europe. Sabin subsequently studied sculpture at Chelsea College of Art, 1979–83, returning to teach, 1997–2006. He made his first installation in 1990 for the Chisenhale Gallery, London. His work in the public realm includes several commissions in which he was lead artist: History Wall, Whitstable, Kent (part of the Horsebridge Development, 2001–03); Square Bridge, Round Bridge and Viewing Platform, Ravensbury Park, Merton, London (part of the Wandle Trail art programme, 2002–05); and The Calibrated Ramp, part of the ‘Art changes Bracknell’ programme, for Bracknell, Berkshire (2003–06). Between 2006 and 2010 he was working on The Coldstones Cut at Nidderdale, Yorkshire Dales, which won the PMSA Marsh Award for Excellence in Public Sculpture in 2011. His Painting and Sculpture, 2013, was commissioned to mark the former site of Chelsea College of Art in Manresa Road, Chelsea, now Henry Moore Court. Sabin has exhibited widely, both in solo and group exhibitions. He lives and works with his wife, the sculptor Laura Ford, and their three children.

Sources: Andrew Sabin website; The Coldstones Cut; Wikiwand.

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Andrew Sabin, 2016 (photo: © A.K.Purkiss)

James Salisbury (b. 1963)

Sculptor, letterer and teacher. He studied at the City and Guilds of London Art School, Kennington, and, for 20 years, taught lettering on its architectural carving course. Before setting up his own workshop in 1992, he served an apprenticeship with Richard Kindersley and worked as an assistant to Ralph Beyer and Sally Bower. His favoured materials are Cornish Delabole and Cumbrian green slates. He has received commissions both in the UK and in Karachi, Johannesburg and Moscow. Salisbury is listed on the Lettering Arts Trust register.

Sources: information from the artist; The Lettering Arts Trust.

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Gillie (b. 1965) and Marc (b. 1961) Schattner

Collaborative artists, best known for their anthropomorphic creations, ‘Dogman’ and ‘Rabbitwoman’. Neither had any formal training in painting or sculpture, although Australian-born Marc Schattner studied graphic design at Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne. The couple met in Hong Kong in 1990 and married the same year. They moved to Sydney in 1999 and by 2006 had decided to work collaboratively, henceforth signing their works ‘Gillie and Marc’. Their first collaborative work, a painting, He’ll never be famous but he doesn’t give a damn, he’s a musician, featuring the first of their man-dog hybrids, won first prize in the 2009 Chianciano Biennale in Tuscany; Bondi Coffee Dog, a sculpture in fibreglass was included in the same year’s Florence Biennale. Dedicated conservationists, in 2016, the Schattners submitted a sculpture, Buried Rhino, to the ‘Sculpture by the Sea’ exhibition on Bondi Beach; intended to raise awareness of the species’ impending extinction, it won them the Allen’s People’s Choice and Kid’s Choice awards. This was followed in 2018 with the installation in Astor Place, New York, of what the couple trumpeted as the ‘world’s largest rhino sculpture’, The Last Three. Featuring life-size sculptures of three Northern White Rhinoceroses balanced acrobatically one on top of the other, it was, like Buried Rhino, a popular success. Inevitably, the art world viewed such productions differently, New York magazine’s senior art critic Jerry Saltz, for example, writing off The Last Three as ‘a kitschy monstrosity’. Sculptures by the Schattners in the UK include Rabbitwoman and Dogman Drinking Coffee, 2017, Bishop’s Square, and Tandem Lovers, 2020, Reuters Plaza, Canary Wharf, both Tower Hamlets; and The Friendship Bench, 2020, Halkin Arcade, Westminster.

Sources: ‘Gillie and Marc Schattner’, Art Nomad; Gillie and Marc (sculptors’ website); Small, Z., ‘How Paparazzi Dogs and Rabbitgirl Conquered New York City Streets’, New York Times, 3 January 2019; ‘Gillie and Marc’, Wikipedia.

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Gillie and Marc Schattner with their dog, Idie, 2017 (photo:Gillieandmarcart, CC BY-SA 4.0 via Wikimedia Commons).

Sculpture Castings Ltd (incorporated 2009)

Fine art foundry based in Basingstoke, Hampshire. Public sculptures include Mark Jackson, Memorial to the Irish Guards, 2011, Windsor; Charlie Langton, Yeats (racehorse), 2011, Ascot Racecourse; Mark Bibby, Memorial to the Sikh Soldiers of the Great War, 2015, National Memorial Arboretum, Staffordshire; and David Williams-Ellis, sculpture for The Normandy Memorial, 2019, Ver-sur-Mer, north-western France.

Sources: Sculpture Castings website; ‘Find and update company information’, GOV.UK.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

(John Hugh) Gilbert Seale (1862–1933)

The most prominent member of a family of sculptors, stonemasons, modellers and plasterers. His grandfather, John Seale, a mason and builder of Bradford, Wiltshire, had two sons, John Wesley Seale (1825–1885), who by 1857 had relocated the family’s architectural sculpture business to south London, and John Whitfield Seale (c.1835–1900), who by 1871 had similarly moved to south London but seems to have worked outside the family firm. Gilbert presumably trained with his father and by 1887 the firm was listed as ‘Gilbert Seale (late J.W. Seale & Son)’. One of Gilbert’s own sons, John Hector Seale (1884–1949), later joined the firm which, from 1910 operated as Gilbert Seale & Son. For at least twenty-five years Seale’s firm enjoyed a continuous succession of important contracts from some of the leading architects of the day. E.W. Mountford engaged him to work on Battersea Polytechnic Institute, 1890–93 (interior decorative plasterwork); Battersea Town Hall, 1892–92 (exterior decorative carving); St Olave’s Grammar School, Bermondsey, 1893–96 (interior plasterwork); and Central Criminal Court, Old Bailey, 1900–07 (plasterwork and sundry carving). A section of Seale’s plaster ceiling panels for R.W. Edis’s rebuilding of Cheveley Park, Cambs, 1896–98 (demolished 1925) was illustrated in The Builder, 30 May 1896, p. 468. By 1900, a rare privilege for an architectural sculptor, Seale was allowed to sign below his work, usually to the right of the architect’s name on the building’s frontage. Examples include the cupids seated on the entrance arches of H. Huntley Gordon’s St Bartholomew House, Fleet Street, 1900, and Reginald Morphew’s Marlborough Chambers, 70–72 Jermyn Street, 1903; one of the pair of carved escutcheons on W.E. Riley’s screen wall, Buckingham Palace Road, 1905, for Victoria Railway Station; and the merfolk framing the corner window of J.S. Gibson, Skipwith & Gordon’s No 41 Kingsway, London, 1910 (this last signed ‘Gilbert Seale & Son’). In 1925, the firm published a book showcasing its work entitled Architectural Decoration. Gilbert Seale seems to have retired by this date as the names beneath the company name are J. Hector Seale and his younger brother, (Arthur) Barney Seale (1896–1957) who would go on to establish himself as an independent sculptor and painter. The firm continued to trade as G. Seale & Son and was finally dissolved in 1949.

Sources: Builder: (i) 30 May 1896, pp. 468, 469; (ii) 4 March 1899, p. 230; Cavanagh, T., Public Sculpture of South London, Liverpool, 2007; Gray, A.S., Edwardian Architecture, London, 1985, p. 324; Lloyd, F., et al, Public Sculpture of Outer South and West London, Liverpool, 2011; Mapping Sculpture: Seale, John Wesley; Seale, George Whitfield; Seale,(John Hugh) Gilbert; Seale, John Hector; Seale, (Arthur) Barney; Merritt, D., et al, Public Sculpture of Bristol, Liverpool, 2011; Seale (Gilbert) & Son, Architectural Decoration [London, 1925] (RIBA Library); Ward-Jackson, P., Public Sculpture of the City of London, Liverpool, 2003.

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John Dando Sedding (1838–1891)

Architect and designer whose style is characterised by Gothic Revival forms with Arts and Crafts detail. He was born at Eton, Berkshire. In 1858, he joined his elder brother, Edmund (1836–1868), in the office of G.E. Street, alongside William Morris, Philip Webb and Richard Norman Shaw. After leaving Street’s practice, Sedding began designing for embroidery, wallpaper and metalwork. In 1865, he joined his brother’s practice in Penzance but in 1868, following his brother’s death, relocated to Bristol. Sedding’s most important work from these years was St Martin’s Church, Low Marple, Cheshire (1869–70), which incorporated stained glass by the Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co designers Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Ford Madox Brown, Edward Burne-Jones and William Holman Hunt. Sedding’s first major commission was St Clement’s Church, Boscombe, Bournemouth (1871–73). Here, Sedding also designed many of the principal furnishings, bringing in F.W. Pomeroy to execute the Crucifixion in the window over the west door. In 1874, Sedding relocated to London and in the same year was elected FRIBA. He joined the committee of the Art Workers’ Guild at its founding in 1884 and, 1886–87, was its second Master. His pupils included the metalworker and jeweller John Paul Cooper, the furniture designers Ernest Barnsley and Ernest Gimson, and the ceramicist Alfred Powell. His chief assistant, who completed many of his projects, was Henry Wilson (1864–1934). A devout Anglican, Sedding was, from 1878, a sidesman and later churchwarden at St Alban the Martyr, Holborn. Following his death, Wilson designed, and Pomeroy executed a memorial for the church to Sedding and his wife (who had died, possibly from grief, a few days after her husband); the memorial was destroyed by bombing during the Second World War. Pomeroy’s memorial to Sedding the architect survives in Holy Trinity, Sloane Street, Chelsea, his final work.

Sources: Oxford Art Online – Grove Art Online; Seccombe, T., ‘Sedding, John Dando (1838–1891)’, rev. D. Findlay, ODNB, Oxford, 2004.

John Dando Sedding, 1882, postcard, Hayman Seleg Mendelssohn
(photo: public domain)

John Pollard Seddon (1827–1906)

Architect and designer born in London. His father, Thomas Seddon, was a cabinet maker and his elder brother, also Thomas, a landscape painter. It was through his brother that John Seddon first met Ford Madox Brown and Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Following Rossetti’s death in 1882, Seddon designed his memorial drinking fountain in Chelsea Embankment Gardens in front of his friend’s former home, 16 Cheyne Walk, while Madox Brown modelled the portrait bust which formed its centre-piece. Seddon had been articled to the neo-classical architect, T.L. Donaldson, but his formative influence was reading Ruskin’s Seven Lamps of Architecture. Seddon’s conviction thereafter was that Gothic was the only true Christian art, ‘most scientific and beautiful, and most in accordance with common sense’. Although principally an ecclesiastical architect, he was responsible for some significant secular designs, for example, University College, Aberystwyth (1864–86). One of Seddon’s most important ecclesiastical restoration projects (in partnership with John Prichard) was for Llandaff Cathedral, for which he persuaded the diocese to commission a triptych from Rossetti (1855–64). Of his independent designs, the most notable is perhaps the church of St Catherine, Hoarwithy, Herefordshire (begun mid-1870s), described in the ‘Buildings of England’ as ‘the most impressive Victorian church in the county’. Seddon also designed stained glass and furniture. In 1861, he designed an architect’s desk (King René’s Honeymoon Cabinet), which he got his father’s company, Seddon & Sons, to make, and Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co’s artists to paint – Madox Brown, Rossetti, Edward Burne-Jones and Val Prinsep painting the figurative subjects for its ten panels, William Morris their decorative backgrounds. It was shown at the 1862 International Exhibition, South Kensington, and is now in the V&A Museum (no. W.10:1 to 28-1927).

Sources: Blackshaw, T.R., ‘Seddon, John Pollard (1827–1906)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; Brooks, A., and N. Pevsner, Herefordshire (The Buildings of England), New Haven and London, 2012, p. 363.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Lincoln Seligman (b 1950)

Sculptor and painter educated at Balliol College, Oxford; RBS member. Best known for site-specific, large-scale sculptures, frequently in the form of suspended mobiles, usually in main entrances or atrium spaces of modern buildings in Europe, USA and Asia. He works in steel, bronze, aluminium, fabric and glass.

Source: Lincoln Seligman website.

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Reuben Sheppard (1874–1946)

Born in Dublin, he was a son of Simpson Sheppard, a monumental stone carver, and a younger brother of the sculptor Oliver Sheppard. Reuben Sheppard studied at the Dublin Metropolitan School of Art, 1889–94. In 1895, he exhibited a model of a candelabrum in the first exhibition of the Arts and Crafts Society of Ireland. In the same year, he submitted a design for a drinking fountain in the national competition run by the Department of Science and Art, South Kensington, and was awarded a silver medal, earning him a place at the National Art Training School (later RCA) where he studied, 1895–97, under Edouard Lantéri. His training under Lantéri led to his only public sculpture commission, the high-relief figures of William Hogarth and Joshua Reynolds on Aston Webb’s V&A Museum façade. Sheppard worked as an assistant to Thomas Brock and in 1906 Brock successfully nominated Sheppard for membership of the RBS. Sheppard showed 10 sculptures at the RA between 1906 and 1914, but in this latter year, for reasons that are unclear, his career as a sculptor came to an end. For a while he earned his living as a salesman, but in 1921 lost his job and was reduced to living in a hostel at King’s Cross, subsisting on financial assistance from his brothers, Oliver and John (a physician). He eventually found employment with the bankers, N.M. Rothschild and Sons, remaining with them until his retirement on a pension in 1944.

Sources: Carpenter, A., and P. Murphy (eds), Art and Architecture of Ireland, Vol III: Sculpture 1600–2000, Dublin, 2015, pp. 316–17; Mapping Sculpture; Royal Academy Summer Exhibition: A Chronicle, 1769–2018.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Robert William Sievier (1794–1865)

Sculptor and engraver. He was born in London and developed early on a talent for draughtsmanship, the silver medal he won in 1812 from the Society of Arts encouraging him to train as an engraver, firstly under John Young and then Edward Scriven. In 1818 he entered the RA Schools and produced a large number of stipple engravings after a wide variety of artists ranging from Hans Holbein to William Etty. It was simply a desire to improve his knowledge of anatomy that led him to study under Joshua Brookes, the anatomical lecturer, and to learn to model in clay, but this resulted in his giving up engraving in about 1823 and turning to sculpture full time. His talent for seizing a likeness earned him a great many commissions for portraits. His busts include the Lord Chancellor, 1st Earl Eldon (1824); Sir Thomas Lawrence (1830, Soane Museum, London); Albert, Prince Consort (1842, Royal Collection); and Frederick William IV, King of Prussia (untraced). Memorial statues include Edward Jenner (1825, Gloucester Cathedral) and 3rd Earl Harcourt (1832, St Michael, Stanton Harcourt, Oxfordshire). Among his few ideal subjects is Musidora 1830, now National Museum of Wales, Cardiff. Sievier exhibited at the RA 1822–44, at the British Institution 1825–31, and at the Society of British Artists 1829–43. He became a director of the General Cemetery Company, Kensal Green Cemetery, in 1832, designing not only his own family monument (1830s), but also one to the quack doctor, John St John Long (d. 1834). In 1841 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society and by 1845 had given up sculpture to pursue his lifelong interest in scientific matters and to manage a rubber works in Holloway, north London.

Sources: Greenwood, M., ‘Sievier, Robert William (1794–1865)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; Roscoe, I., et al, A Biographical Dictionary of Sculptors in Britain 1660–1851, New Haven and London, 2009.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

José Simões de Almeida (1880–1950)

Portuguese sculptor whose suffix ‘Sobrinho’ (i.e. ‘nephew’) is applied to distinguish him from his namesake uncle (1844–1926), also a sculptor. Simões de Almeida attended the Lisbon School of Fine Arts from 1893 on the general design course and then, from 1897, the statuary sculpture course, where he was taught by his uncle. In 1904, he was awarded a scholarship to study in Paris for three years; here, he studied with Raoul Verlét and Jean-Paul Laurens. In 1915, he was appointed professor of sculptor at the Lisbon School of Fine Arts in succession to his uncle. One of his earliest commissions was the statue of Bento de Góis, for the island of São Miguel (inaugurated 1906; removed 1963). Important works include the Bust of the Republic (marble, 1908), Museu da Presidência da República, Lisbon; the pedimental relief for the São Bento Palace, Lisbon; and the memorial to the dead of the Great War, 1924, Cascais. A bronze statue of Prince Henry the Navigator by Simões de Almeida was unveiled in 2002 in Belgrave Square, London.

Sources: José Simões de Almeida (Sobrinho); ‘Biografia de José Simões de Almeida (Sobrinho)’, Museo Centro Arts; Wikipedia.

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José Simões de Almeida (sobrinho) (photo:Biblioteca Municipal de Figueiró dos Vinhos from Portugal, CC BY 2.0 via Wikimedia Commons ).

J.W. Singer

Foundry established by John Webb Singer (1819–1904) of Frome, Somerset. Singer began as a watchmaker and jeweller, setting up Frome Art Metalworks in 1848, specialising in church furnishings, and soon gaining a national reputation. In 1888, with encouragement from three of the leading British sculptors of the day, William Hamo Thornycroft, Edward Onslow Ford and Alfred Drury, Singer extended his premises on the outskirts of Frome to incorporate a statue foundry, providing facilities not only for traditional sand casting, but also the recently re-introduced lost wax process. Unsurprisingly, each of the above sculptors soon provided Singer with valuable commissions, Thornycroft in c.1889 with a copy of his London Statue of General Gordon, for Melbourne, Australia; Onslow Ford with his General Gordon on a Camel, 1889, for Chatham, Kent, and Drury with his Statue of Joseph Priestly, 1899, for Leeds. Such high quality results ensured that the foundry quickly became one of the leading fine art bronze foundries in Britain. In 1899, Singer and Sons was made into a private limited liability company and J.W. Singer passed control to his sons, Walter Herbert and Edgar Ratcliffe Singer. The foundry continued to flourish into the 1920s when increased competition and its own relatively remote location forced it into an amalgamation with the Lambeth-based Morris Art Bronze Foundry, creating the new firm Morris Singer.

Sources: Beattie, S., The New Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1983; James, D. S, A Century of Statues. The history of the Morris Singer Foundry, Basingstoke, Hants, 1984; NPG British Bronze Sculpture Founders.

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John Webb Singer (photo: CC BY-SA 4.0 via Wikimedia Commons)

Francis Alfred Skidmore (1817–1896)

Art metalworker in the Gothic Revival style, born in Birmingham, the son of a silversmith. In 1822, the family moved to Coventry. Skidmore served a seven-year apprenticeship with his father, learning metalworking and jewel setting. He became a partner in Francis Skidmore and son, and in 1851 showed some church plate at the Great Exhibition (one example, a silver gilt and enamelled chalice, is now at the V&A, mus. no. 1329-1852). In 1852, Skidmore’s expertise was acknowledged by his election to the Oxford Architectural Society. At about the same date, he began a long and close working relationship with George Gilbert Scott, manufacturing, for example, choir screens to the architect’s designs in Lichfield, Worcester, Salisbury and Hereford cathedrals. The first two remain in situ;the chancel gates and surmounting cross of the Salisbury screen and the whole of the Hereford screen are now in the V&A (mus. nos. M.4-1979, M.5-2015, and M.251:1-1984 respectively). The Hereford screen, shown at the 1862 International Exhibition, was awarded a prize for ‘progress, elegance of design, and for excellent workmanship’ (Morning Post, 12 July 1862, p. 7); the Illustrated London News (30 August 1862, pp. 244–46) heralded it as ‘the most noble work of modern times … a monument of the surpassing skill of our land and our age’ and devoted two pages to its illustration. Naturally, it was to Skidmore that Scott turned for most of the metalwork on the Albert Memorial (completed 1872). Despite his high reputation, he outlived the fashion for the Gothic Revival style and died in much reduced circumstances. He was survived by his wife, Emma, and their four children. With the restoration in the 1990s of the Albert Memorial and the installation of the restored Hereford screen in the V&A, Skidmore’s reputation revived. In 2000, a memorial plaque was unveiled marking the site of his factory at Alma Street, Hillfields, Coventry.

Sources: Mapping Sculpture; Whyte, W., ‘Skidmore, Francis Alfred (1817–1896)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2013; Wikipedia.

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Francis Alfred Skidmore, 1896 (photo: CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons).

Sydney Smirke (1797–1877)

Architect born in London, the fifth son of the painter Robert Smirke RA (1753–1845) and the younger brother of England’s leading Greek Revival architect Sir Robert Smirke RA (1780–1867), whose pupil he initially was. Sydney Smirke entered the RA Schools in 1817, winning the Silver Medal in 1817 and the Gold Medal in 1819. In the following year, he visited Sicily and mainland Italy, sketching and measuring classical architecture. In 1828, he was appointed Clerk of the King’s Works at St James’s Palace. He succeeded to many of his brother’s positions: in 1841, to the surveyorship of the Inner Temple, and in 1846, on his brother’s retirement, to the surveyorships of the Duchy of Lancaster, the British Museum and the General Post Office. His first major commission was the reconstruction of the Pantheon, Oxford Street (1833–34; demolished), and his most celebrated design the round reading room of the British Museum (1854–57), inspired by the Pantheon in Rome. He was elected ARA in 1847 and RA in 1859, was the RA Schools professor of architecture, 1860–65, and RA treasurer 1861–1874 (his last major commission was for a range of exhibition galleries for Burlington House, 1866–70). He was a fellow of the Royal Society, the Society of Antiquaries, and the RIBA and, in 1852, founded the Architects’ Benevolent Society (serving as president until his death).

Sources: Reidy, D.V., ‘Smirke, Sydney (1798–1877)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; Royal Academy of Arts website; The Times, 12 December 1877, p. 11 (obit.).

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Sydney Smirke,1860s carte-de-visite by John and Charles Watkins (photo:John & Charles Watkins, CC0, via Wikimedia Commons).

Andrew Smith (b. 1962)

Sculptor and designer, born in south Wales. He studied at West Surrey College of Art and Design, where he graduated with honours in three-dimensional design specialising in metals, and the RCA, where he gained a master’s degree in the metalwork department. In the mid-1980s, after attending research courses in Germany, France and Iran, Smith began designing street furniture and exhibiting both in Britain and abroad. In the late 1990s, he was commissioned to design a Sculptural Canopy to go atop the NGC Cable Joint Building, Canal Way, Kensington. Part of an urban improvement scheme, the building beneath it very quickly succumbed again to the graffiti which had so blighted the area before its refurbishment. Smith’s brightly coloured 15-metre-high, Lollipop Be-Bop, inaugurated 2001, in front of the Bristol Royal Hospital for Children, fared rather better, although its interior lighting, originally controlled by a console that the children could use on the hospital’s third floor, was not maintained and is now inoperative. Nevertheless, the sculptor believes that it still manages to convey the ‘sense of friendliness and welcome’ that he intended.

Sources: Art and the Public Realm Bristol; Buckman, D., Artists in Britain since 1945 (2 vols: A–L, M–Z), Bristol, 2006; Merritt, D., et al, Public Sculpture of Bristol, Liverpool, 2011.

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Anthony Smith (b. 1984)

Sculptor born in Glasgow, now based in Amsterdam. He first attended Winchester College, before going on to Christ’s College, Cambridge, to study zoology, specialising in animal behaviour and evolution. Having learnt to sculpt at school, he further developed his skills as a sculptor in his spare time from his university studies, casting and exhibiting limited edition bronze sculptures. After graduating in 2005, he set up his own studio in Cambridge and began sculpting full-time. In 2009–10, he took part in an eight-month circumnavigation voyage aboard a three-masted clipper, working as ship’s artist and photographer for a Dutch-Flemish television documentary series, Beagle: In het kielzog van Darwin (‘Beagle: In Darwin’s wake’), retracing the route described by Darwin in his Voyage of the Beagle (published 1839). In 2012, Smith was awarded a Shackleton Scholarship to visit the Falkland Islands as artist-in-residence; and this was followed, in 2013, by two months on South George, again as artist-in-residence, this time at the invitation of the South Georgia Heritage Trust. Smith is now based in Amsterdam. His first major commission was for a portrait bust of Carl Linnaeus for the Linnean Society of London (2007). His statue of the young Charles Darwin was unveiled by the Duke of Edinburgh at Christ’s College, Cambridge, in 2009 (shortlisted for the PMSA Marsh Award for Excellence in Public Sculpture) and his statue of Alfred Russel Wallace was unveiled by Sir David Attenborough in the Natural History Museum in 2013. Smith is an ARBS and a fellow of the Linnean Society.

Sources: Anthony Smith website; ‘Anthony Smith (sculptor)’, Wikipedia; ‘Beagle: In Darwin’s Wake’, Wikipedia; ‘Sculptor in Residence’, South Georgia Newsletter, September 2013.

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Anthony Smith with his Elephant’s Trunk bronze, December 2020 (photo: Fortheloveofknowledge, CC BY-SA 4.0 via Wikimedia Commons)

Joe Smith (b. 1950)

A sculptor in slate, born in West Yorkshire, he learnt how to build drystone walls at the age of 11. From the age of 19, he began earning his living building functional drystone walls, but after noticing the increasing use of drystone walling as an art form, he decided to investigate its possibilities. Artists, he says, began to recognise ‘drystone walling as more than a means of keeping sheep out of the turnips – that it was beautiful. The art world started taking an interest in drystone walling, so I started taking an interest in art. It was a logical development in the skill.’ Since the mid-1990s he has turned his skill towards the creation of drystone sculptures, principally for gardens. Beginning with slate vases, he has expanded to include cones, spheres, obelisks, wine glasses, pears and chessmen. He collaborated with Andy Goldsworthy, 1989–93, in the UK, France, USA and Australia, a significant example of their work being Slate Hole Wall, 1990, in the Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh. Smith’s independent work includes Thrust and Tilted Globe, both 2001, Elphin, Highland, Scotland; Globe, 2004, in the grounds of Academy Gardens, Duchess of Bedford’s Walk, Kensington; and a trio of vases in Prince Charles’s garden at Highgrove. Recently he formed a business partnership with his daughter, Jenny, who, following a three-year apprenticeship, became a fully competent practitioner.

Sources: Joe Smith website; McKenzie, R., Public Sculpture of Edinburgh, Volume 2, Liverpool, 2018, p. 520; ‘Joe Smith’, On Form Sculpture; Sommerville, C., ‘Slate sculptures a solid foundation for garden’, 17 November 2013, The Scotsman.

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Simon Smith

Sculptor and stone carver based in London. His work includes both the restoration of existing works and the design of original sculptures; his range includes statues, architectural decoration and memorial headstones. After serving an apprenticeship as a stonemason at Woburn Abbey, he went on to study stone carving and sculpture at the City & Guilds of London Art School. In 2006, he was elected a member of both the RBS and the Master Carvers Association. His public sculptures include Portland stone replicas of Michael Rysbrack’s marble statue of Hans Sloane, in Duke of York Square, King’s Road, Chelsea (2007; commissioned by the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea), and Chelsea Physic Garden (2014; commissioned by Lord Cadogan); stone gargoyles and decorative foliage for Westminster Abbey’s chapter house (2010; commissioned by Nimbus Conservation Ltd); a statue of Kitty Wilkinson for St George’s Hall, Liverpool (Carrara marble, 2012; commissioned by Liverpool City Council – the first statue of a woman to be placed in one of the niches of the great hall); a war memorial, A Promise Honoured, Castle Yard, Winchester (Portland stone, 2014; commissioned by the ‘To Honour a Promise Project Group’ in remembrance of the American soldiers billeted around Winchester during the First World War – shortlisted for the PMSA Marsh Award for Excellence in Public Sculpture); and Bacchante, Sissinghurst Castle Garden (Carrara marble, 2016; commissioned by the National Trust).

Sources: Simon Smith website; ‘Kitty Wilkinson Statue Unveiled’, 19 September 2012, Liverpool Express.

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Arthur Standring & Co

Art metal workers based at 183 Princess Street, Manchester. In a classified advertisement in The British Architect (25 May 1888, supplement, p. i), the firm, previously known as Freeman and Collier, lists its range of activities as ‘Gates, Railings, Balustrades, Lamps, Gas and Electrical Fittings; Iron, Brass, and Bronze Founders’. The same magazine (26 October 1888, p. 306) announced that in February 1889, the owner, Arthur Standring, was scheduled to present a paper to the Manchester Architectural Association entitled ‘The Treatment and Manipulation of Metal in Art Metal Work’. In the mid-1880s, the firm cast the subscribers and promoters plaque for the Memorial Fountain to Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Chelsea Embankment Gardens.

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James Alexander Stevenson (1881–1937)

Sculptor and medallist, born in Chester. He studied under Lantéri at the RCA, 1900–05 (winning a travelling scholarship in sculpture) and was one of the advanced students selected by Lantéri to carve a relief figure, of John Everett Millais, on the Cromwell Road façade of Aston Webb’s V&A Museum extension in 1905. He attended the RA Schools, 1906–09, winning a Landseer Scholarship in his first year. He was modelling master at the Regent Street Polytechnic, 1911–14, and was ARBS, 1923–26, and FRBS from 1926 until his death. He exhibited regularly at the RA (32 works), and also at the Paris Salon and the International Society. The signature he frequently applied to his works, ‘Myrander’, is a conflation of his wife’s first name (Myra) and his own middle name. In 1930 he produced two Kneeling Triton Lamp-standards in bronze for the Royal London Mutual Assurance building (Triton Court), Islington. Stevenson’s Times obituarist considered him at his best in portrait busts, notably that of Sir Frederic Kenyon, 1931 (British Museum). Other busts include King George V in naval uniform, 1914 (acquired by the sitter and now in the Royal Collection) and Sir Ernest Shackleton. His bronze bust of a Roman emperor entitled Imperator (1915) is in the Tate. He was commissioned to produce a number of war memorials including those to Major General C.W. Park, 1919, and to the Devonshire Regiment, 1921, both Exeter Cathedral; the parish memorial in St Mary’s Church, Bedfont, Middlesex, 1920; the Dingwall Memorial, Ross and Cromarty, Scotland, 1922; and the Askari Monument, 1927, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Sources: Mapping Sculpture; Royal Academy of Arts website; The Times, 6 October 1937, p. 16 (obit.).

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John Macallan Swan (1847–1910)

Painter and sculptor born at Brentford, Middlesex. Swan entered the RA Schools as a painter in 1872, but relocated to Paris in 1874 to continue his training at the École des Beaux-Arts under Jean-Léon Gérôme. Gérôme introduced Swan to the animalier sculptor, Emmanuel Frémiet, and the two studied together in the Jardin des Plantes. In Paris, he also admired the animalier sculpture of Antoine-Louis Barye and Auguste-Nicolas Cain. Swan returned to England in 1879, continuing to study live animals, now at the Regent’s Park Zoo. Although the primary focus of his painting and sculpture was wild animals, he also studied the human form, both in Paris under the anatomist Mathias-Marie Duval, and in London at St Thomas’ and St Bartholomew’s hospitals. Most of Swan’s works are in museums and private collections, an exception being the eight bronze lions (1907) he contributed to the memorial to Cecil Rhodes at Groote Schuur, Cape Town, South Africa. His Boy and Bear Cubs (1901), although part of the Tate collection, is on long-term loan to Holland Park. He was elected a member of the AWG in 1887 (then described as a painter), and ARA in 1894 and RA in 1905. He won first-class gold medals (in painting and in sculpture) at the 1900 Exposition Universelle in Paris. Although little known today, Swan’s obituarist in The Times wrote of him: ‘It would scarcely be possible to name an English artist whose death would be more keenly felt among those working in a modern spirit, whether at home or abroad; and indeed it may be said that in France, Germany, and America Mr. Swan was probably more admired and more highly estimated than any of his English contemporaries’.

Sources: Armstrong, A., ‘Swan, John Macallan (1847–1910)’, rev. J. Melville, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; Baldry, A. L., ‘The work of J. M. Swan ARA’, The Studio, 22 (1901), pp. 74–80, 150–61; Beattie, S., The New Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1983; Mapping Sculpture; The Times, 16 February 1910, p. 10 (obit.).

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John Macallan Swan, before 1876, albumen print,coll. Royal Academy of Arts (photo:Elliott & Fry, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons)

Godfrey Sykes (1824–1866)

Designer, sculptor and painter born in New Malton, Yorkshire. He started out as an apprentice to an engraver in Sheffield and in 1843 was one of the first students to enrol at the Sheffield School of Design, a regional training institution recently opened by the Government’s Department of Art and Science. In 1850, the headmaster, Young Mitchell, persuaded Alfred Stevens (whose pupil he had been) to come to Sheffield to teach and to work as a designer with Hoole & Co. Sykes took the opportunity this afforded to work three-days-a-week as Stevens’s unpaid assistant at the firm, Stevens’s techniques and style exerting the single most important influence on his approach and working methods. In 1854, Sykes was commissioned to design a 60-foot-long frieze for the Sheffield Mechanics’ Institute (now in Sheffield City Art Galleries). In 1857, he was appointed assistant headmaster, but in October 1859 accepted Henry Cole’s invitation to relocate to London to work as principal decorative artist on the Horticultural Society’s new buildings and on the adjacent South Kensington Museum buildings; Sykes shortly afterwards engaged three of his fellow students as his assistants, William Ellis, James Gamble and Reuben Townroe. Cole, keen to enrich his principal designer’s artistic education, took him to France and Italy in 1861 (Sykes’s sketches from the journey are now in the V&A). Sykes’s health seems always to have been fragile and in early 1866 at the age of 41, he died of pulmonary oedema reputedly exacerbated by overwork. He left a rich store of sketches and designs which his assistants continued to use for the decoration of the museum buildings over the ensuing years. Sykes’s main work outside the South Kensington Museum was his design for the Monument to William Mulready (d. 1863), Kensal Green Cemetery, executed after Sykes’s death by Gamble and Townroe. Sykes, who had lived with his wife at 2 Rich Terrace, Old Brompton Road, was buried in Brompton Cemetery. Gamble designed both the headstone for his grave and also his monument at Weston Park, Sheffield (unveiled 1875).

Sources: Bryant, J., Designing the V&A. The museum as a work of art (1857–1909), London, 2017; Graves, S., ‘Sykes, Godfrey (1824–1866)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; Mapping Sculpture; Marsden, C., ‘Godfrey Sykes and his studio at the South Kensington Museum’, in M. Pye and L. Sandino (eds.), Artists Work in Museums: histories, interventions, subjectivities, Bath, 2013, pp. 48–62; Physick, J., The Victoria and Albert Museum: The History of its Building, London, 1982; V&A Museum, National Art Library: Catalogue of the special exhibition of oil paintings, water-colour drawings, architectural and other studies by the late Godfrey Sykes: at the South Kensington Museum, June 1866, HMSO (call no. VA.1866.Box.0001); Henry Cole. Diary: Typed Transcript 1859, 1861, 1866 (call nos 45.C.120, 45.C.122, 45.C.127).

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James Gamble, Godfrey Sykes, copper relief patinated to resemble bronze, detail from the Memorial Column to Sykes, Western Park, Sheffield, 1871. (Photo: Ukance, CC BY-SA 4.0 via Wikimedia Commons)

John Edward Taylerson (1854–c.1942)

Ecclesiastical and architectural sculptor born in Norton, Co. Durham. While he was still young, he and his widowed mother moved to Kent. He studied at Faversham School of Art, then South London Technical School of Art and finally Westminster School of Art. He began as an ecclesiastical sculptor and is probably the Taylerson, then in the employment of Thomas Earp, whose carvings in G.E. Street’s Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin, 1871–78 (on the capitals of the pillars around the apse) were commended by William Butler in his book, The Cathedral Church of the Holy Trinity Dublin (1901). The high quality of Taylerson’s work assured his employment as an architectural carver on a number of important building projects during the 1890s and 1900s: he was one of Hamo Thornycroft’s assistants on John Belcher’s Institute of Chartered Accountants, 1888–93; he carved the choir screen for G.H. Fellowes Prynne’s Church of St Peter’s, Staines, Surrey, 1892–93; carved ornamental details for T.E. Collcutt’s Lloyd’s Register of Shipping, 1899–1901; carved the figures for the reredos in J. Arthur Reeve’s St Barnabas, Addison Road, Kensington, 1909; and carved some of the decorative sculpture on Stanley Hamp’s Thames House, 1911–12. His chef-d’oeuvre, however, is the programme of works he completed for James Brooks and John Standen Adkins in St John the Baptist, Holland Road, Kensington . His work here includes all the figures on the choir screen, parclose screens and north and south aisle screens (1894–1900) and in the narthex-cum-baptistery: the cycle of Wise and Foolish Virgins in stone between the column shafts and the saints, etc, in oak on the arched screen separating the baptistery from the nave (1909–11). He showed 38 sculptures at the RA 1884–99 and 1910–26, the 1900–09 break in all likelihood caused by pressure of work from his architect employers; significantly, in the 1911 census he no longer refers to himself as an architectural sculptor but a sculptor working on his own account. His last major commission was for a group in stone, Succouring the Defenceless, for the war memorial at Warlingham, Surrey; the memorial was unveiled in 1921 and Taylerson exhibited the model for the group at the RA in 1924 (no. 1358). He also evidently taught modelling and wood-carving at Battersea Polytechnic but available sources supply no dates.

Sources: Builder, 27 October 1911, p. 480; Day, J.G.F., and H.E. Patton, The Cathedrals of the Church of Ireland, London, 1932, p. 91; Irish Architectural Archive. Dictionary of Irish Architects 1720–1940; Lloyd, F., et al, Public Sculpture of Outer South and West London, Liverpool, 2011;Mapping Sculpture; Survey of London. Vol. XXXVII. North Kensington, London, 1973, pp. 133, 134; United Benefice of Holland Park. The Building. Look inside John the Baptist Church; Victorian Web; Ward-Jackson, P., Public Sculpture of the City of London, Liverpool, 2003.

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Wendy Taylor (b. 1945)

Sculptor, printmaker and draughtsman born at Stamford, Lincolnshire, but living for many years in East London. She studied at St Martin’s School of Art, 1962–67, winning in 1964 the Walter Neurath award and in 1966 the Sainsbury award. In 1977, she obtained both an Arts Council award and a gold medal in the Listowel Graphics Exhibition, County Kerry, Eire. Taylor had the first of many solo exhibitions in 1970, at the Axiom Gallery, and has participated in many group exhibitions. Her appearances have been fewer since 1981 as she has ‘chosen to concentrate on working in the field of commissioned sculptures’. Two of Taylor’s commissions have been grade II listed by Historic England: Timepiece, 1972–73, Tower Hotel, St Katherine Docks, London, and Octo, 1979–80, Milton Keynes, while a third, her mariner’s astrolabe addition to the subsequently listed Virginia Settlers Memorial, Brunswick Quay, London, was cited by Historic England as one of the reasons for its listing. Her entry for the 2000 ‘Bronze: Contemporary British Sculpture’ exhibition at Holland Park, Tortoises with Triangle and Time, was subsequently retained as a permanent feature. Other major commissions include Dung Beetles, 1999, London Zoo, Regent’s Park; Millennium Fountain, 2000, Chase Green, Enfield, Middlesex (Civic Trust Award 2002); Through the Loop, 2002, Pacific Place, Hong Kong; Knowledge, 2003, Queen Mary College, University of London (Building of the Year Award, Architectural Sculpture 2004); Square Chain Piece, 2007, Hillside, Bartlesville, Oklahoma, USA; Memorial to the Civilian Dead of East London 1939–1945, 2007, Hermitage Riverside Memorial Garden, Wapping; Unity, 2011, Unison Centre, Euston Road, London; and Swirl, 2013, The Atrium, Park Road, Regent’s Park, London. Taylor was a member of the Royal Fine Art Commission, 1981–99; appointed CBE in 1988; elected a fellow of the Zoological Society in 1989, of the RBS in 1994 (council member 1999–2000), and of the Royal Society of Arts 2004.

Sources: Wendy Taylor website; Historic England official list entries: Octo; Timepiece; Virginia Quay Settlers Monument; Who’s Who (online).

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Wendy Taylor, 2016 (photo: © A.K.Purkiss)

Reuben Townroe (1835–1911)

Designer, sculptor and painter, born in Sheffield. He was, with James Gamble and Godfrey Sykes, a student at the Sheffield School of Design where one of his masters was Alfred Stevens. Shortly after Sykes’s move to London to work on the architectural decorations for the South Kensington Museum, both Townroe and Gamble were invited to join him as his assistants; and after Sykes’s death in 1866 the two took over as joint heads of the museum workshop. Townroe designed the mosaic panels portraying Bernard Palissy for the museum’s South Court (1864; since relocated) and Owen Jones for the Oriental Courts (1874; now lost). He also designed the large stained glass window for the North Staircase (1867; destroyed in the Second World War); the figurative mosaic lunettes and panels on the façade of the Lecture Theatre, and the Great Exhibition mosaic for its pediment (1868; designs based on Sykes’s sketches); and, with Gamble, modelled the reliefs on the museum’s then principal doorway (now opening onto the inner quadrangle, the John Madejski Garden). Townroe also designed the 15 mosaic panels above the round-headed first-floor windows on the outside of the Library building and the plaster overdoors within (c.1881). In 1865–71, Townroe and Gamble executed the terracotta decorations for the exterior of the Royal Albert Hall. Beginning in the 1870s, the South Kensington Museum suffered funding cuts and in 1882 Townroe resigned over his lack of payment. In the breaks between their work on the museum’s projects, Townroe and Gamble assisted Stevens on his two great commissions, the decorations for Dorchester House and the Wellington Monument for St Paul’s Cathedral. Townroe lived for much of his life in Chelsea (Church Street from c.1875, and Gertrude Street from c.1891 until his death). He exhibited at the RA only twice, in 1875 a portrait medallion of Captain Francis Fowke and in 1880 another of an unnamed sitter. In 1909, Townroe was a beneficiary of the RA’s Turner Fund (set up for artists in hardship who were not RAs). The V&A holds a large collection of his designs and sketches; Museums Sheffield, a self-portrait in oils (VIS.2310); and the National Portrait Gallery, a plaster cast of his 1875 death mask of Alfred Stevens (NPG 1413).

Sources: Bryant, J., Designing the V&A. The museum as a work of art (1857–1909), London, 2017; Graves, S., ‘Sykes, Godfrey (1824–1866)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; Mapping Sculpture; Marsden, C., ‘Godfrey Sykes and his studio at the South Kensington Museum’, in M. Pye and L. Sandino (eds.), Artists Work in Museums: histories, interventions, subjectivities, Bath, 2013, pp. 48–62; Physick, J., The Victoria and Albert Museum: The History of its Building, London, 1982.

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Newbury Abbot Trent (1885–1953)

Sculptor born at Forest Gate, London. At about the age of 11, Trent was reportedly discovered drawing in the South Kensington Museum by the Director for Art of the Department of Science and Art (the painter Thomas Armstrong RA) who, recognising Trent’s talent, persuaded his parents to allow him to adopt him and train him as an artist (Trent was one of 11 children and Armstrong’s own son had recently died at about the same age as Trent was when he spotted him). Trent entered the RCA, c.1904 and subsequently the RA Schools (1909–1912; 1910 Landseer Scholarship). In 1911, he married Phyllis Ledward, the daughter of Richard Ledward and sister of Gilbert Ledward. He exhibited at the RA, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, and Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts. His public sculptures include memorials to King Edward VII (the ‘Peacemaker’) in Brighton, 1912, and Bath, 1919; war memorials at New Barnet, 1921; Beckenham, 1921; Wanstead, 1922; Ilford, 1922; Tredegar, Wales, 1924; and Wallsend, 1924; the monument to Dean Pigou (d.1916), Bristol Cathedral; and architectural sculpture at the New Victoria Cinema (now Apollo Victoria Theatre), Wilton Road, London, 1929; Gaumont Palace cinemas, Hammersmith, 1932, and King’s Road, Chelsea, 1934; Cheltenham Cinema, 1932–33; No. 3 St James’s Square, London, 1933–34; Adelphi Building, John Adam Street, London, 1936–38; and Gaumont Cinema, North Finchley (lost), 1937. He was a member of the RBS from 1914, and his studio from c.1916 was at 1 Beaufort Street, Chelsea.

Sources: Mapping Sculpture; Royal Academy of Arts website; Who Was Who; relevant volumes of Pevsner’s ‘Buildings of England’.

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Newbury Abbot Trent, Bassano Ltd., whole-plate glass negative, 23 July 1921 (photo: © National Portrait Gallery, London).

Sian Tucker (b. 1958)

Tucker studied textiles at Middlesex Polytechnic, 1977–80 (BA Hons) and the RCA (MA in printed textiles, 1982). She subsequently established her own studio, working for private, public and corporate clients. She has designed for the Conran Stores and for Stifanel. She employs traditional motifs in bright, mostly primary colours, drawing inspiration from African and Native American traditions and from early twentieth-century art, notably the cut-outs of Henri Matisse. A hanging in hand-painted wool,which she designed in 1986, is in the collection of the V&A (museum no. T.133-1986). Her mobile, Falling Leaves, 1993, for Chelsea & Westminster Hospital is her largest project to date.

Sources: British Council website; CW+ Art Collection; The Healing Arts. The arts project at Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, 2019.

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Laurence Arthur Turner (1864–1957)

Architectural carver in wood and stone, and modeller in plaster. He was the youngest of seven brothers, one of whom, Hugh Thackeray Turner, became architect to the Grosvenor Estate in Mayfair and Belgravia, and commissioned decorative work from his younger brother for some of his houses. Laurence Turner was educated at Marlborough College and at Oxford. Following an apprenticeship with John McCulloch he went into business on his own, the high quality of his craftsmanship earning him commissions from some of the leading church architects of his day. For G.F. Bodley’s Holy Trinity, Prince Consort Road, South Kensington, 1901–06, he carved the figures on the pulpit and on the reredoses in the chancel and Lady Chapel; for Philip Webb, he carved the tomb of William Morris (d. 1896) at Kelmscott; for Ernest Newton, the tomb of Richard Norman Shaw and family at Hampstead, 1913; and for Walter Tapper, the Lancaster Gate Memorial Cross, 1921. Turner was Master of the Art Workers’ Guild in 1922, a member of the Society of Antiquaries, and an honorary ARIBA. In 1927, he published Decorative Plasterwork in Great Britain. Following Turner’s death at the age of 93, Charles Wheeler wrote a glowing eulogy in The Times: ‘In these days when craftsmanship is at a low ebb, the loss of so accomplished a designer as Laurence Turner cannot but leave the art world poorer’.

Sources: Gray, A.S., Edwardian Architecture, London, 1985; Mapping Sculpture; The Times, 12 October 1957, p. 11 (obit. by Charles Wheeler).

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Peter Turnerelli (1774–1839)

Sculptor, mostly of portrait busts. He was born in Belfast of an Italian father, who was a modeller and figure-maker. The family moved to Dublin in 1787 and Turnerelli initially studied for the priesthood. Following the death of his mother in 1792, the family moved to London and Turnerelli joined them a year later, having abandoned the idea of being a priest and instead, in October 1794, entered the RA Schools. While at the schools he worked in the studio of P.F. Chenu and after completing his studies spent a brief period in Rome. On his return he came to the attention of Sir Thomas Lawrence and Benjamin West, who recommended him to the royal family as teacher of modelling to the royal princesses. He was eventually appointed the royal family’s sculptor-in-ordinary. Turnerelli enjoyed a remarkable success as a portrait sculptor, with over 80 marble copies of his Jubilee bust of George III being ordered by private patrons and public bodies. He was one of the first portrait sculptors to represent his subjects in contemporary dress. His reputation reached the continent and he numbered among his patrons the Czar of Russia and the King of Prussia; in 1816, Louis XVIII sat for him. Turnerelli’s bust of Henry Grattan, 1812/13 (marble, Rossie Priory, Perthshire, until 2021, afterwards Daniel Katz Gallery; plaster cast, NPG 1341) was praised by Canova as the best modern bust he had seen in England. He also produced some monuments, the most notable being his group of Robert Burns receiving inspiration from his spirit muse while working a plough, for the national monument at Dumfries (1816). The cast iron Stags mounted on plinths to either side of Albert Gate, Hyde Park, were very tentatively ascribed to Turnerelli in the Illustrated London News, 31 January 1863, p. 130.

Sources: O’Donoghue, F.M., rev. J. Turpin, ‘Turnerelli, Peter (1771/2–1839)’, ODNB (2004), 2006; Oxford Art Online – Grove Art Online; Roscoe, I., A Biographical Dictionary of Sculptors in Britain 1660–1851, New Haven and London, 2009.

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Peter Turnerelli, engraved by James Thomson, 1821 (photo: Stephencdickson, CC BY-SA 4.0 via Wikimedia Commons)

John Tweed (1869–1933)

Sculptor born in Glasgow. In 1890, after studying part-time at Glasgow School of Art while working as an assistant in the studios of George Lawson, James Ewing, and Pittendrigh McGillivray, Tweed moved to London. He successfully applied to work in Hamo Thornycroft’s studio and, on Thornycroft’s insistence, attended the South London Technical Art School, Lambeth, and subsequently the RA Schools. In 1893, he went to Paris where he became friends with Rodin and briefly studied at the École des Beaux-Arts under Alexandre Falguière. On his return to London, Tweed obtained a commission, through his friend Edwin Lutyens, to execute a bronze relief for Cecil Rhodes’s residence, Groote Schuur, Cape Town, South Africa; several more South African commissions followed. In 1901, Tweed was commissioned to complete Alfred Stevens’ Duke of Wellington Memorial for St Paul’s; unveiled 1912. In the same year his reredos for Holy Trinity, Sloane Street, Chelsea, was installed. Tweed’s friendship with Rodin culminated in an exhibition of the latter’s sculpture in London in 1914, which Rodin subsequently presented to the nation (the 18 sculptures are in the V&A Museum). The style of Tweed’s many public statues – mostly ‘men of action’ – is typified by what The Times referred to as ‘bluff common sense’. The most important are Lieutenant-Colonel Benson, 1904, Hexham, Northumberland; Charles Compton, 3rd Baron Chesham, 1910, Aylesbury, Bucks; Captain Cook, 1912, Whitby, Yorks (replica, 1914, Melbourne, Australia); and Lord Clive, 1912, Sir George White, 1922, and Lord Kitchener, 1926, all London. Tweed’s ‘masculine’ style also found an outlet in war and regimental memorials, such as the Rifle Brigade Memorial, 1925, London; Barnsley War Memorial, 1925; and the Peers’ War Memorial, 1932, Palace of Westminster. For most of his time in London, Tweed lived in Chelsea, firstly at 14A Cheyne Row then, from c.1900, at 108 Cheyne Walk – marked, since 1985, by a blue plaque (with an incorrect birth date). The John Tweed archive is at the Reading Museum.

Sources: Capon, N., John Tweed. Sculpting the Empire, Reading, 2013; Mapping Sculpture; Stocker, M., ‘Tweed, John (1869–1933)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; The Times, 13 November 1933, p. 19 (obit.).

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John Tweed, Bassano Ltd., 1921, whole-plate glass negative (photo: © National Portrait Gallery, London)

Laurens van der Meulen (1645–1719)

Also Laurence Vandermuelen and Laurens de Malines. Sculptor originating in Malines, Low Countries. He came to London in 1675 and worked for Grinling Gibbons. He is one of several ‘servants to Mr. Grinling Gibbons, the carver’, named in a ‘License to Forainers employed at Windsor to remain here wth. out molestation’, dated 16 November 1678. George Vertue records that van der Meulen was employed alongside Pierre van Dieveot on Gibbons’ statue of King James II and that the two of them returned to the Low Countries in ‘the troubles of the Revolution’ (1688–89).

Sources: Roscoe, I., A Biographical Dictionary of Sculptors in Britain 1660–1851, New Haven and London, 2009; Vertue, G., Vol. IV, Walpole Society, no xxiv, 1935/36, p. 50; Ward-Jackson, P., Public Sculpture of Historic Westminster. Volume 1, Liverpool, 2011.

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Imre Varga (1923–2019)

Sculptor born in Siófok, Hungary. He studied at the Academy of Fine Arts, Budapest, 1950–56, under Pál Pátzay and Sándor Mikus. The first work which attracted attention was Prometheus in 1965. He had his first solo exhibition in Budapest in 1967. In 1973, he won the Kossuth Prize and in 1982, the Herder Prize. Since 1983, his work has been permanently exhibited in Laktanya Street, Óbuda, Budapest. In 1984, he exhibited at the Venice Biennale. In 2003, he was awarded the Society of Portrait Sculptors’ Jeanne Masson-Davidson silver medal. Varga’s principal works are his statues of Béla Bartók – one model with casts in Budapest and in Makó, Hungary, 1981; in Square Béla Bartók, Paris, 1982; Old Brompton Road, Kensington, 2004; and Koerner Hall, Toronto, 2005 – and one model with a cast in Place d’Espagne, Brussels, 1995. In addition, all in Hungary, are his Women with Umbrellas in Obuda, Budapest; La Charogne, a sculpture inspired by Baudelaire’s poem of the same name in Siófok; and his statues of the president of the first republic of Hungary, Mihály Károlyi, in Budapest, of the poet Lőrinc Szabó in Miskolc, and of the painter Gyula Derkovits in Szombathely. He also executed a Holocaust Memorial for Budapest, a relief depicting St Stephen for the crypt of St Peter’s, Rome, and a statue of Raoul Wallenberg for Tel Aviv, Israel.

Sources: information supplied by Malcolm Rudland, Peter Warlock Society (7 March 2018); Wikipedia.

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Imre Varga, 2004 (photo: Varga.lukacs, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons)

Václav Vokolek (b. 1947)

Czech writer and artist. He is the author of over 40 books of poetry and prose, and in 1994 was one of the founders of the Triáda publishing house. Since 1995, he has taught art history at the Prague Higher School of Professional Journalism.

Sources: ‘Czech Garden Corner’, 31 March 2016, Embassy of the Czech Republic in London; Wikipedia (in Czech).

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Václav Vokolek (photo:Italienis, CC BY-SA 4.0 <>, via Wikimedia Commons.

Charles Francis Annesley Voysey (1857–1941)

Architect and designer born in Hessle, Yorkshire, the eldest son of the Revd Charles Voysey, the founder of the Theistic Church. The family moved to London in 1871 and in 1874 Voysey was articled to the Gothic revival architect, J.P. Seddon; in 1880, he became an assistant to George Devey, a designer of large country houses, and in 1881 set up in independent practice. With a dearth of commissions for houses, his initial income came from designing wallpaper and textiles much influenced by the work of Arthur Mackmurdo and William Morris. In 1884 Voysey was elected a member of the Art Workers’ Guild (Master in 1924). In December 1888, his design for a cottage, published by the British Architect, finally attracted clients. Thereafter his reputation grew rapidly; he regularly exhibited his building, furniture and decorative designs with the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society and at the RA, and his house designs were published with increasing frequency in journals both in the UK and abroad. For his houses he rejected period styles and, aligning himself with the ideas of Pugin and Ruskin, produced designs not just for the structures – which must be well-built, with clean, simple lines, clear plans, and within an English vernacular tradition – but for all the fixtures and furnishings within them. The taste for Voysey’s houses began to dwindle around 1906, with the rising fashion for classical architecture, and after 1914 he received very few commissions. Among his few executed works in these years are two war memorials, Malvern Wells, Worcestershire (1919) and St John’s churchyard, Potters Bar, Hertfordshire (1920) and a reredos (1927) for Culbone church, Somerset. Despite the downturn in his fortunes, he was finally elected FRIBA in 1929 and awarded the gold medal for architecture in 1940. He published only one book, Individuality (1915), and one pamphlet, Reason as the Basis of Art (1906).

Sources: Briggs, M.S., ‘Voysey, Charles Francis Annesley (1857–1941)’, rev. W. Hitchmough, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; British Architect, 7 December 1888, pp. 401, 405; Oxford Art Online – Grove Art Online; The Times, 13 February 1941, p. 7 (obit.); The C.F.A. Voysey Society website.

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Charles Francis Annesley Voysey, Lafayetter, 1932, half-plate film negative (photo: © National Portrait Gallery, London)

Arthur George Walker (1861–1939)

Sculptor, painter and mosaicist, born in Hackney, London. He attended the RA Schools 1883–88 (winning a Landseer Scholarship in 1886). In the earlier part of his career, he executed a number of architectural sculpture commissions, including stone and bronze emblems of the Four Evangelists, 1895, for the tower of the Church of the Ark of the Covenant (later Church of the Good Shepherd), Upper Clapton, London; and mosaic designs for the Greek Orthodox church, Bayswater, and Whitelands College, then at Chelsea. Walker executed a South African War Memorial for Bury St Edmunds (1904), and numerous First World War memorials. His figure of a Tommy standing with reversed rifle was commissioned in Portland stone for Heston, Middlesex (1918) and Chesham, Bucks (1921), and in bronze for Sevenoaks, Kent (1920), Heath Town, Wolverhampton (1920), Dartford, Kent (1922), and Ironbridge, Shropshire (1924). He also produced bespoke memorials, for St Anne’s Church, Limehouse, 1921 (with a figure of the Blessing Christ); Shrewsbury School, 1923 (with a figure of old-boy Sir Philip Sidney); and Derby, 1924 (with a standing Virgin and Child). Walker’s first important public statue was of Florence Nightingale, 1914, Waterloo Place (followed in 1916 by a relief memorial to the same subject for the crypt of St Paul’s Cathedral). Later public statues include Emmeline Pankhurst, 1930, Victoria Tower Gardens, Westminster, and an equestrian John Wesley, 1932, Wesleyan Chapel courtyard, Broad Mead, Bristol. Walker was a member of the Art Workers’ Guild, 1892–1916, and a founder member of the RBS (1904; FRBA from 1923). He was elected ARA in 1925, RA 1936, Senior RA 1937, and was a Visitor at the RA Schools, October 1928–June 1929. The RA has three of Walker’s oil paintings (c.1932) of the interior of his studio at Cedar Studios, Glebe Place, Chelsea, in which can be seen the models for a number of his works.

Sources: Beattie, S., The New Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1983; Gray, A.S., Edwardian Architecture, London, 1985; Mapping Sculpture ; Who Was Who.

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Arthur George Walker, Self-portrait, c. 1910, oil on canvas, Russell-Cotes Art Gallery & Museum, Bournemouth (photo: public domain).

André Wallace (b. 1947)

Sculptor born in Somerset where he attended the local school of art, 1964–67, before moving on to the Liverpool College of Art, 1967–70, RA Schools, 1970–71, and Royal College of Art, 1971–73. In 1974 he was awarded the Sainsbury Prize for Sculpture. He has shown at the RA since 1973 and has taken part in many mixed exhibitions, both in the UK and abroad. His solo exhibitions include Mercury Gallery, London, 1975, 1977 and 2000; Middlesbrough Art Gallery, 1978; Cartwright Hall, Bradford, 1983 and 2000; Drumcroon Gallery, Wigan, 1994; and Stephen Lacey Gallery, London, 2001. His work, which is usually figurative and characterised by smoothly modelled, simplified forms, has often been commissioned for public spaces and created in collaboration with architects, developers and councils. Public commissions include Man with Pigeons, 1976, Eldon Square Shopping Centre, Newcastle upon Tyne; The Whisper, 1984, polyester resin, Southend Pond, Bromley Road, London, and bronze, Milton Keynes public library; Thomas Telford, 1986, Telford Civic Square; Wind of Change, 1989, Exchange Quay, Salford, and Harbour Exchange, Limeharbour, London; Walking Women, 1992, Wimbledon town centre; Siren, 1995, and River God, 1996, Newcastle Quays, Newcastle upon Tyne; Helmsman, 1996, Pimlico Gardens, London; Boatman, 2004–05, Chepstow, Monmouthshire; Head and Thinking Man, 2006–07, University of Wolverhampton Learning Centre; and Roller Skater, 2010, Moreton Street, Pimlico, London. Wallace is a FRSS.

Sources: information from the sculptor; André Wallace website; Cavanagh, T., Public Sculpture of South London, Liverpool, 2007; Lloyd, F., et al, Public Sculpture of Outer South and West London, Liverpool, 2011; Royal Society of Sculptors website; Usherwood, P., et al, Public Sculpture of North-East England, Liverpool, 2000.

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Edward Prioleau Warren (1856–1937)

Architect born in Bristol. He attended Clifton College, Bristol, and was subsequently articled to G.F. Bodley who greatly influenced his early work. Following his master’s death in 1907, Warren designed Bodley’s memorial which was unveiled in his last completed building, Holy Trinity, Prince Consort Road, South Kensington, in 1910; in the same year, Warren published an account of Bodley’s life and work in the RIBA Journal (3rd series, vol. 17 (1910), pp. 305–40). A.S. Gray described Warren as ‘an all-round architect’, equally comfortable designing churches, colleges (mostly in Oxford, but some Cambridge) and homes. He designed Hanover Lodge, St John’s Wood, London (1903–04), which Gray commended as ‘the best-looking block of mansion flats in an era of mansion flats’. He also designed his own home, Breach House, Cholsey, Berkshire (1906) as well as the reredos for the parish church (1925) in whose churchyard he is buried. He was FSA and FRIBA, and a member of the AWG (Master in 1913).

Sources: Gray, A. S., Edwardian Architecture, London, 1985; Who was Who; relevant editions of Pevsner’s ‘Buildings of England’.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

George Frederic Watts (1817–1904)

Painter and sculptor, born in London. In c.1827, he entered the studio of the sculptor, William Behnes, a family friend. As part of his training, Watts was required to make drawings of plaster casts after the antique, amongst which were some from the Elgin marbles. The profound impact these works exerted upon him lasted a lifetime. Although he gained entrance to the RA Schools in 1835, he was disappointed with the quality of teaching and left in the following year, later saying, ‘The Elgin Marbles were my teachers. It was from them alone that I learned’. Watts established a reputation as one of the leading painters in Victorian England, but in the late 1860s also began to produce sculpture. His marble bust, Clytie (London, Guildhall Art Gallery), which he exhibited unfinished at the RA in 1868 earnt him ecstatic reviews; the Athenaeum critic praised the sculpture’s ‘passionate vivacity of design and that large style of treatment which should be more often found in the works of trained sculptors than it is. That a painter should exhibit this fine style is extraordinary’. A commission for an equestrian statue of Hugh Lupus soon followed, with Watts revisiting the theme over the following decades, transforming it, in the process, into his sculptural masterpiece, Physical Energy, erected posthumously in Kensington Gardens, 1907. Watts also executed a number of church monuments: to Thomas Cholmondeley, 1866–67, St Mary and St Andrew, Condover, Shropshire; Bishop Lonsdale, 1869–70, Lichfield Cathedral; Lord Lothian, 1871–74, Blickling church, Norfolk; and John Armistead, 1876, Sandbach church, Cheshire. And finally, there are his two important outdoor statues, Lord Holland, 1869–72, Holland Park, and Alfred Lord Tennyson, 1898–1903, Lincoln Cathedral. Watts was elected ARA in January 1867 and RA in December of the same year. He lived and worked in Kensington for much of his life: from 1851 to 1875 at Little Holland House, as the long-term guest of Henry Thoby Prinsep and his wife, and from 1876 in his own home at 6 Melbury Road (‘New Little Holland House’). In 1891, Watts and his second wife commissioned the architect Ernest George to build Limnerslease (now Watts Gallery) at Compton, outside Guildford, as their autumn and winter country residence; here, preserved in the sculpture studio, are the full-size gesso grosso models of Physical Energy and Lord Tennyson.

Sources: The Athenaeum, 16 May 1868, p. 702; Bryant, B.C., ‘Watts, George Frederic (1817–1904)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; Manchester Guardian, 2 July 1904, p. 7 (obit. by M.H. Spielmann); Mapping Sculpture; Morris, E., and E. Roberts, Public Sculpture of Cheshire and Merseyside (excluding Liverpool), Liverpool, 2012; Oxford Art Online – Grove Art Online; Royal Academy of Arts website; The Times, 2 July 1904, p. 5 (obit.).

T. Cavanagh November 2022

George Frederic Watts (photo: Ogden’s Guinea Gold Cigarettes trade card No.74, issued 1902; public domain)

Sir Aston Webb (1849–1930)

Architect born at Clapham (then in Surrey), the son of Edward Webb, a watercolourist and steel engraver. Webb was articled to Banks and Barry, 1866–71. Before setting up in independent practice in 1873, he won the RIBA’s Pugin studentship which financed his travel to Europe and Asia. During the 1880s he began a working relationship with Edward Ingress Bell (1836–1914), their first successful competition entry being in 1886 for the Victoria Law Courts, Birmingham (completed 1891); this collaboration continued up to 1909 and included the critically acclaimed Metropolitan Life Assurance Company offices, Moorgate, London (1890–93). Webb’s independent work includes the restoration of St Bartholomew the Great, Smithfield (1885 onwards); the Britannia Royal Naval College, Dartmouth (1898–1907); the southern extension to the V&A with unified façades along Exhibition and Cromwell Roads (1899–1908); and, most importantly, Admiralty Arch, The Mall, the architectural surroundings of Brock’s Victoria Memorial and the refacing of Buckingham Palace (1905–13). Webb’s obituarist in The Times considered his most successful building, ‘from the point of view of unity of effect’, the Royal College of Science, Imperial Institute Road (1900–06; demolished 1970s). Greatly concerned about London’s future, in January 1914 he delivered an address to the London Society, in which he described a dream image of what the city would be like in 2014, ‘with a salmon weir at London Bridge’. While not considered a great architect whose works were touched by genius, his inoffensive, restrained baroque classicism and his immaculate planning skills, allied to his personal charm and trustworthy, businesslike character, made him the ‘most prominent British architect of his time’ (Times obit.). He was president of Architectural Association, 1881–82, and of the RIBA, 1902–04. He was elected ARA in 1899 and RA in 1903, and was PRA, 1919–24, the first architect president since James Wyatt in 1805. He was knighted in 1904 and was an original member of the Royal Fine Art Commission, formed in 1924. In that year, he was injured in a motor accident, never fully regaining his health. The elder of his two sons, Maurice Webb (1889–1939), continued his practice (the younger had been killed in the war). Webb died in his sleep at his house at 1 Hanover Terrace, Kensington, on 21 August 1930, and was interred in the family plot at Gunnersbury cemetery, Middlesex. In 1932, a memorial tablet designed by William McMillan was unveiled in St Paul’s Cathedral.

Sources: Dungavell, I., ‘Webb, Sir Aston (1849–1930)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; The Times, 22 August 1930, p. 12 (obit.); Ward-Jackson, P., Public Sculpture of Historic Westminster. Volume 1, Liverpool, 2011; Who was Who.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Sir Thomas Brock R.A., Sir Aston Webb P.R.A., c. 1922 (photo:© Royal Academy of Arts, London; photographer: Paul Highnam)

Henry Weekes (1807–1877)

Sculptor born at Canterbury. In 1822 he began a five-year apprenticeship with William Behnes and in the following year entered the RA Schools where in 1826 he won a silver medal for the best model from the antique. In 1827, he became an assistant to Francis Chantrey. After Chantrey’s death in 1841, Weekes purchased his former master’s studio at 96 Buckingham Palace Road and completed a number of his works including the equestrian Duke of Wellington (1841–44; Royal Exchange). He exhibited at the RA 1828–77 and at the British Institution 1850–66. He was elected ARA 1851 and RA 1863, and was Professor of Sculpture at the RA Schools, 1868–76. Weekes is chiefly known as a portrait-sculptor and in 1838 was commissioned by Queen Victoria to execute her bust, the first following her accession to the throne. Among Weekes’s most successful full-length portrait statues are those of Francis Bacon, 1845, Trinity College, Cambridge, and John Hunter, 1864, Royal College of Surgeons. In 1856, he executed Sardanapalus, one of a series of figures based upon themes from English literature commissioned by the Corporation of London from the leading sculptors of the day for the Egyptian Hall, Mansion House. Weekes also produced numerous church monuments, his masterpieces in this field being those to Samuel and Elizabeth Whitbread, 1849, Cardington, Bedfordshire, and Percy Bysshe Shelley,, 1854, Christchurch Priory, Hampshire. The most important of his public sculptures were for Sir George Gilbert Scott: the figures of Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer for the Martyr’s Memorial, 1841–43, Oxford, and the group, ‘Manufactures’, 1864–70, for the Albert Memorial, Kensington Gardens. Weekes was an accomplished writer on art, his essay on the Fine Art Section of the Great Exhibition of 1851 earning him a gold medal. His RA Schools lectures were published posthumously as Lectures on Art in 1880 and were described by Benedict Read as ‘the most consistent and intelligent exposition of sculptural thinking in the Victorian era’.

Sources: Read, B., Victorian Art, New Haven and London, 1982; Roscoe, I., A Biographical Dictionary of Sculptors in Britain 1660–1851, New Haven and London, 2009; Stevens, S., ‘Weekes, Henry (1807–1877)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; Royal Academy of Arts website; information from RA archives.

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Henry Weekes fl.1857-1876, albumen print mounted on card with printed name (photo:© Royal Academy of Arts, London; photographer: Prudence Cuming Associates Limited)

Sir Richard Westmacott (1775–1856)

Sculptor. The son of Richard Westmacott I (1746/47–1808), he became one of the leading neoclassical sculptors of heroic monuments in England. He studied under his father before going to Italy in 1793, where he became a pupil of Canova. By 1795 he had been elected a Member of the Academy of Florence and had won the Gold Medal of the Academy of St Luke for his bas-relief, Joseph and his Brethren. He returned to England in 1797 and soon established his own studio, running a flourishing practice producing statues, busts, ideal works, chimney-pieces and funerary monuments. He exhibited at the RA from 1797 to 1839, was elected ARA in 1805 and RA in 1811, and was appointed Professor of Sculpture in 1827. He won commissions for two of the national monuments in St Paul’s commemorating heroes of the Napoleonic Wars – to Lieutenant General Sir Ralph Abercromby (1803–09) and to Vice-Admiral Cuthbert, Lord Collingwood (1811–17) – and sculpted memorials for Westminster Abbey to William Pitt the Younger (1807–15), and to Charles James Fox (1810–23). Westmacott also produced the first non-royal statues to be raised in the open-air; his London statues include those of Francis Russell, 5th Duke of Bedford (1809); Charles James Fox (1810–14); (1827–32); and Frederick Augustus, Duke of York and Albany (1829–34). For and for Liverpool he made memorials to Lord Nelson, that in Liverpool an elaborate allegorical composition, created in collaboration with Matthew Cotes Wyatt. The success of his practice was exceeded only by that of Chantrey. Like Chantrey he owned his own foundry, thus managing to secure many prestigious public commissions, including the colossal bronze Achilles (1814–22), erected in Hyde Park as a monument to the Duke of Wellington. Westmacott was knighted in 1837. His last major work was the multi-figure group, entitled the Progress of Civilisation, in the pediment of the British Museum (1847–51).

Sources: Busco, M., Sir Richard Westmacott. Sculptor, Cambridge, 1994; Roscoe, I., et al, A Biographical Dictionary of Sculptors in Britain 1660–1851, New Haven and London, 2009.

P. Ward-Jackson 2011

Richard Westmacott II,late 1860s-early
1870s,albumen carte-de-visite
(photo: John Watkins, public
domain, via Wikimedia Commons).

Oliver Wheatley (1868–1931)

Sculptor born in Handsworth, Birmingham. He studied at Birmingham School of Art, 1888–91, and was awarded a national scholarship to enter the National Art Training School, South Kensington, where he later won a Gold Medal and Travelling Scholarship. Wheatley exhibited widely in his early years, with the Royal Birmingham Society of Artists, and at the Liverpool Autumn Exhibition and the RA. His address in the 1895 RA catalogue, a Paris hotel, is consistent with M.H. Spielmann’s statement that Wheatley had received some training in the atelier of the French symbolist painter Aman-Jean. Wheatley also worked for a time as an assistant to the sculptor Thomas Brock. The Studio, March 1906, p. 132, illustrated Wheatley’s relief panels for an organ case, shown at that year’s Arts and Crafts Exhibition at the Grafton Gallery, London, representing child musicians framed within decorative foliage. Wheatley’s only major public sculpture commissions were his high relief figures of Inigo Jones and Christopher Wren, 1905, on Aston Webb’s V&A Museum frontage, and Electricity and Speed, 1899, for the old Bank Underground railway station, City of London. He evidently suffered from a mental illness in his later years, the RA nominations book for 26 March 1920 noting ‘certified in lunatic asylum’. Wheatley died at St Andrew’s Hospital, Northampton, of aortic valve disease.

Sources: Mapping Sculpture; Spielmann, M.H., British Sculpture and Sculptors of To-day, London, 1901; Ward-Jackson, P., Public Sculpture of the City of London, Liverpool, 2003.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

J. Whitehead & Sons

According to its advertisements in the early 1920s, the London-based firm had been founded in 1821. It is not until the second half of the nineteenth century, however, that examples of its sculptural output can be securely identified. The firm was by this period under the directorship of John Whitehead I (c.1845–1904), who gave his occupation as an undertaker, but who was also a stone and marble merchant and manager of a monumental sculpture business. A marble statue commissioned from the firm and unveiled in 1883 representing Alexander MacDonald – the first of a series of four miners’ leaders for niches on the Miners’ Hall, Durham – is signed ‘J. Whitehead. Westminster. London’. (This and the three succeeding statues have since been relocated to pedestals outside the Durham Miners’ Association Offices at Redhills Lane, Durham.) By the end of the century and with the growth to maturity of John’s two sons, Joseph James Whitehead (1868–1951) and John Walter Whitehead II (1876–?), the firm had become J. Whitehead & Sons Ltd. Joseph became director either in 1902 or, following his father’s death, in 1904. Their initials being the same, there seems to have been no need to change the company name (as is evidenced by the Architectural Review, January 1925, p. lviii, which, in listing the contractors for the Star and Garter Home, Richmond, states that Mr Joseph Whitehead of J. Whitehead & Sons, London, was responsible for the stone carvings). References in recent literature to Joseph Whitehead & Sons seem to result from a confusion with those commissions Joseph carried out independently as a portrait and figure sculptor (see below). In 1904, Whitehead & Sons moved from their Westminster Address (Vincent Square) into the Imperial Works, Harleyford Road, Kennington Oval. By 1909, the firm was the official contractor for the Metropolitan Drinking Fountain and Cattle Trough Association. In the early 1930s Joseph Whitehead retired, to be succeeded by his son, Cecil John Whitehead (1902–1983). Whitehead’s were in business until at least 1985 when they executed the pedestals for Ian Walters’ Memorial to the International Brigade, Jubilee Gardens, and the colossal bust of Nelson Mandela, 1985, outside the Royal Festival Hall, both London. Their numerous public commissions include the Surf Boat Memorial, 1900, Margate Cemetery, Kent; Chelsea Pensioners War Memorial, 1901, Brompton Cemetery, Kensington; Beauchamp Lifeboat Memorial, 1903, Caister-on-Sea, Norfolk; Ada Lewis Memorial Fountain, 1908, Maidenhead Riverside, Berks; Titanic Engineers’ Memorial, 1914, Southampton (for which F.V. Blundstone provided the bronze sculptures); and the Hyde War Memorial, 1921, Werneth Low, Greater Manchester.

Sources: Cavanagh, T., Public Sculpture of South London, Liverpool, 2007; Lamb, A., ‘John Rae’s Sculptor – Some Notes on Joseph Whitehead’, Aglooka Advisor (The John Rae Society), No. 11 (Winter 2020), pp. 12–14; Lloyd, F., et al, Public Sculpture of Outer and South West London, Liverpool, 2011; Merritt, D., et al, Public Sculpture of Bristol, Liverpool, 2011; Noszlopy, G.T., Public Sculpture of Warwickshire, Coventry & Solihull, Liverpool, 2003; Seddon, J., et al, Public Sculpture of Sussex, Liverpool, 2014; Usherwood, P., Public Sculpture of North-East England, Liverpool, 2000; Ward-Jackson, P., Public Sculpture of the City of London, Liverpool, 2003; Wyke, T., Public Sculpture of Greater Manchester, Liverpool, 2004.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Joseph Whitehead

Sculptor born in Aston, Birmingham, the elder son of John Whitehead (see above), an undertaker, stone and marble merchant, and owner of a thriving monumental sculpture business based in London. Joseph Whitehead attended the National Art Training School in the late 1880s and subsequently the Accademia di Belle Arti di Carrara where his father’s firm had an office. Here also he met his future wife, Ottilia Maro (1866–1957). On the couple’s return to England, Whitehead joined the family firm, became principal sculptor and either in 1902 or, following his father’s death in 1904, managing director. He also operated independently of the firm, working from his own studio near the firm’s workshops in Vincent Square. He exhibited at the RA summer exhibitions, 1889–95, his works amounting to one statue and five busts. In 1893, he carved the relief portrait bust of Revd Charles Spurgeon for his monument in West Norwood Cemetery. This was followed two years later by a memorial to Dr John Rae, St Magnus Cathedral, Kirkwall, Orkney Islands – an expressive, superbly carved, marble effigy of the explorer asleep, his hands clasped behind his head, open book and rifle at his side; it is signed ‘Joseph Whitehead. Sculptor. London’. In the same year came his memorial bust of Archbishop Robert Knox (RA 1895, no. 1615) for St. Patrick’s Cathedral, Armagh, Northern Ireland. His monument to Sir Augustus Harris, 1897, Brompton Cemetery is in a sadly ruinous state. A work entirely lost is the anti-vivisectionist Brown Dog Memorial, 1906, formerly Latchmere Park Recreation Ground, Battersea, south London; the cost of a permanent police watch over the memorial to prevent medical students destroying it proved too much for the council who discreetly removed it one night in 1910 and subsequently had it melted down. In Woodside Cemetery, Paisley, Scotland, is the monument to Second-Lieutenant Daniel M. Duncan (d. 1918) killed in action in the closing months of the First World War, for which Whitehead provided the poignant Mother and Son group, loosely based on Michelangelo’s Pietà (St Peter’s, Rome); it has been suggested that the death of Whitehead’s own eldest son, Eric, in the same year, influenced his choice of subject. Whitehead’s last significant public sculpture was his model of a jubilant home-returning soldier, raising his helmet above his head in salutation. At least seven bronze casts were made in the early 1920s, all of them inscribed on the integral bases with the names of both the sculptor and the founder (A.B. Burton): one cast, formerly at the King Edward Street Post Office, City of London, was destroyed by fire in 2004, the others are at Chertsey; Worthing; Stafford; Truro; Ebbw Vale; and Queens County, Liverpool, Nova Scotia. With the deterioration of Whitehead’s health in the early 1930s, he and his wife moved to the Hampshire coast where, with the architect W. Hinton Stewart, the sculptor designed the couple’s final residence, Creek House, Barton on Sea.

Sources: Building News, 28 April 1893, p. 592; Cavanagh, T., Public Sculpture of South London, Liverpool, 2007; Lamb, A., ‘John Rae’s Sculptor – Some Notes on Joseph Whitehead’, Aglooka Advisor (The John Rae Society), No. 11 (Winter 2020), pp. 12–14 (; Lloyd, F., et al, Public Sculpture of Outer and South West London, Liverpool, 2011; Mason, P., The Brown Dog Affair. The story of a monument that divided the nation, London, 1997; Noszlopy, G.T., & F. Waterhouse, Public Sculpture of Staffordshire and the Black Country, Liverpool, 2005.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Julian Wild (b. 1973)

Sculptor, living and working in Lewes, East Sussex. He graduated from Kingston University, London, with a BA in Fine Art in 1995, subsequently working as an assistant to Damian Hurst before setting up on his own. He has taken part in numerous group exhibitions, including ‘Beyond Limits’, Chatsworth House, and ‘Make Do’, V22, Ashwin Street, London, 2008, and ‘Sculpture in the City’, City of London, 2014–15. He was awarded the Royal Borough of Kensington & Chelsea and Chelsea Arts Club Trust Studio Bursary, 2009–12, the work produced during this residency being shown at the Leighton House Museum in an exhibition entitled ‘Wrestling Pythons’, an allusion to Frederic Leighton’s most famous sculpture, Athlete Wrestling with a Python; one of Wild’s exhibits, Indeterminate System, 2010, japanned hardwood, was subsequently placed on permanent display in the town hall’s civic reception foyer. His 5-metre-high, 12m long, painted and polished stainless steel Origin, 2017, was commissioned by the University of Oxford to stand outside its Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Information and Discovery. The Canary Wharf Group has acquired two of his works for permanent display: Origin (Vertical), 2017, painted and polished stainless steel, Crossrail Place Roof Garden, and Scribbleform, 2020, painted steel, Montgomery Square, both Canary Wharf, London. He has been a senior lecturer at the Art Academy, London, since 2016, and is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Sculptors (Vice-President, 2015–19).

Sources: Julian Wild website; Art Academy website; Royal Society of Sculptors website.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Julian Wild, 2015 (photo: © A.K.Purkiss)

Richard Wilson (b. 1953)

Sculptor born in London, ‘internationally celebrated for his interventions in architectural space which draw heavily for their inspiration from the worlds of engineering and construction’ (Royal Academy of Arts). After a Foundation Course at the London College of Printing, 1970–71, he took a diploma course at Hornsey College of Art, 1971–74, and a Master’s degree at Reading University, 1974–76. In 1976, he had his first solo show, ’11 Pieces’ at the Coracle Press Gallery, London; since then, he has exhibited widely, both nationally and internationally. In 1983 he formed, with Anne Bean and Paul Burwell, the Bow Gamelan Ensemble – making percussive music from scrap metal. In 1987, Wilson created what is widely considered to be his seminal work, 20:50; first installed at Matt’s Gallery, London, it was at the Saatchi Gallery until in 2014 it was acquired for the permanent collection at Mona (Museum of Old and New Art), Tasmania. In his 1996 BBC television series, A History of British Art, the art critic Andrew Graham Dixon hailed 20:50 as ‘one of the masterpieces of the modern age’. In 2000, Wilson was the only British artist invited to participate in the Echigo-Tsumari Art Triennial, Japan, his contribution being Set North for Japan (74°33′ 2″). In the same year his A Slice of Reality (a cut-through section of an ocean dredger), one of the art works commissioned for the Millennium Dom, was installed at Greenwich. His contribution to Liverpool’s year as European Capital of Culture (2008), Turning the Place Over, an 8-metre diameter ovoid section cut from the walls and windows of a building and fixed to a slowly rotating spindle, was in operation until 2011. His permanently sited Square the Block, mounted on the corner of the London School of Economics building, Kingsway, London, followed in 2009, and Shack Stack at Grosvenor Waterside in 2010. As part of the 2012 Cultural Olympiad Festival, he included in his exhibition at the De La Warr Pavilion, Bexhill-on-Sea, a temporary installation, Hang on a Minute Lads…I’ve Got a Great Idea, a replica of the coach used in the 1969 film, The Italian Job. Fixed in position overhanging the building’s roof, a hydraulic mechanism made the coach appear to teeter dangerously; in 2019, the film’s fiftieth anniversary, it was installed at Turin, the location for the film’s heist. In 2014, Wilson’s Slipstream for Heathrow Terminal 2 won the PMSA’s Marsh Award for Excellence in Public Sculpture. In 2005, he was included in the Tate’s ‘Modern Artists’ book series (Richard Wilson by Simon Morrisey); in 2006 he was elected RA (Professor of Sculpture, 2011–15); and in 2008, he was awarded an honorary doctorate by the University of Middlesex.

Sources: Richard Wilson website; Buckman, D., Artists in Britain since 1945, Bristol (1998), 2nd edn. 2006; Royal Academy of Arts website; Seddon, J., et al, Public Sculpture of Sussex, Liverpool, 2014; Usherwood, P., et al, Public Sculpture of North-East England, Liverpool, 2000.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Richard Wilson, 2018 (photo: © A.K.Purkiss)

Joseph Wilton (1722–1803)

Sculptor born in London, the son of a successful ornamental plasterer. He studied firstly with Laurent Delvaux in Nivelles, Belgium, then from 1745 with Jean-Baptiste Pigalle in Paris, during which time he was awarded a silver medal by the French Academy. In 1747, he relocated to Rome and earned a comfortable living making casts and copies of antique statuary for Grand Tourists. In 1750, his Cain Killing Abel earnt him the first gold medal awarded to an English artist by the Accademia di San Luca. In 1751, Wilton moved to Florence, living in Sir Horace Mann’s guest house; in 1752, he was elected to the Florentine Accademia del Disegno. He finally returned to England in 1755, establishing his reputation in 1759 by winning the competition for the James Wolfe monument for Westminster Abbey (unveiled 1773). His appointment in 1761 as sculptor in ordinary to George III resulted in some major commissions, including an equestrian statue of the king for New York (1766–70, destroyed 1776); statues of William Pitt the Elder for Cork (1764–66), New York (1766–70), and Charles Town, West Virginia (1766–70); a funeral monument to Basil Keith, governor of Jamaica (d. 1777); and a bust of George III for Montreal (1766; now McCord Museum, Montreal). Among Wilton’s friends were Louis François Roubiliac, who made his portrait bust (plaster, c.1760; RA), and the architect William Chambers, for whose monuments to the Duke of Bedford at Chenies, Bucks (1765–7), and the Earl and Countess Mountrath in Westminster Abbey (1766–71), he executed the sculpture; Wilton’s workshop also carried out much of the architectural sculpture for Chambers’ Somerset House (1776–90). A skilled portraitist, his busts may by seen in the V&A – Dr Antonio Cocchi (1755–56) – and NPG – Thomas Hollis (c.1762) and William Pitt the Elder (c.1766). Wilton was, in 1768, a founder member of the RA (keeper from 1790). According to his ODNB entry, he was ‘the first academically trained English sculptor’, going on to become ‘the most distinguished sculptor of his generation’.

Sources: Coutu, J., ‘Wilton, Joseph (1722–1803)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; Roscoe, I., A Biographical Dictionary of Sculptors in Britain 1660–1851, New Haven and London, 2009.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Joshua Reynolds, Joseph Wilton, 1752, oil on canvas (photo: © National Portrait Gallery, London)

Francis Derwent Wood (1871–1926)

Sculptor, born at Keswick, Cumbria. His family moved to Switzerland in 1880 and by 1885 were in Germany where Wood began his art education at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Karlsruhe. After his family’s relocation to Shropshire in 1887, Wood worked as a modeller, firstly for Maw & Co and then the Coalbrookdale Iron Co. In 1890, he enrolled at the National Art Training School, South Kensington, where he studied modelling under Edouard Lantéri. In 1891, he worked as an assistant to Alphonse Légros at the Slade School of Fine Art. He entered the RA Schools in 1894 while working as an assistant to Thomas Brock, and in 1895 won the Gold Medal and Travelling Studentship with his group, Daedalus and Icarus (plaster at Russell-Cotes Art Gallery, Bournemouth; bronze at Bristol Museum & Art Gallery), which financed a year-long stay in Paris. From c.1897 to 1901 he was visiting director of modelling at Glasgow School of Art. He was elected a member of the AWG in 1901, was a founder member of the RBS in 1904, and was elected ARA in 1910 and RA in 1920. During the First World War he worked for the London General Hospital making masks to cover facial disfigurements. From 1918 to 1923 he was Professor of Sculpture at the RCA. His public statues include Sir Titus Salt (1903), Saltaire, Yorkshire; General Wolfe (1911), Westerham, Kent; Edward VII (1914), Rangoon; William Pitt (1918), Washington, DC; and Henry Royce (1923), Derby. His war memorials include St Mary’s Church, Ditchingham, Norfolk (1920); the Cotton Exchange, Liverpool (1922); Keswick (1922); and the Machine Gun Corps, Hyde Park Corner (1925). Wood also produced portrait busts and ideal works. In 1929, a bronze cast of his marble Atalanta (1909, Manchester Art Gallery) was erected on Chelsea Embankment as a memorial by his friends at the Chelsea Arts Club (of which he was for many years a member); sadly, this was stolen in 1991 and in 1994 was replaced with a replica. Wood and his wife (and, from 1904, their son) lived until c.1908 at 23 Clareville Grove, South Kensington, although by 1911 their improved financial situation had allowed them to purchase the lease on 18 Carlyle Square, Chelsea; Wood worked from a studio at 27 Glebe Place, Chelsea, from 1900 to 1925. He is buried in the churchyard at Amberley, Sussex, a bronze cast of his relief, The Lamentation, set into his headstone.

Sources: Beattie, S., The New Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1983; Crellin, S., ‘Hollow Men: Francis Derwent Wood’s Masks and memorials, 1915–1925, Sculpture Journal, vol. VI, 2001, pp. 75–88; Crellin, S., ‘Wood, Francis Derwent (1871–1926)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; Mapping Sculpture; Parkes, K., ‘Francis Derwent Wood, R.A.’, American Magazine of Art, Vol. 18, No. 2 (February 1927), pp. 79–87; Royal Academy of Arts website; The Times, 20 February 1926, p. 14 (obit.); Withey, M., The Sculpture of Francis Derwent Wood, London, 2015.

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Francis Derwent Wood, photographer unknown, c. 1914, bromide print (photo: © National Portrait Gallery, London)

Frank Arnold Wright (1874–1961)

Sculptor born at Rotherhithe, south London. He studied at the RA Schools, 1898–1903, winning the Landseer Scholarship in 1900. He was studio assistant to Thomas Brock and on the latter’s death in 1922 was entrusted with the completion of a number of the works his master had commenced, including the memorial to Joseph Lister, Portland Place, London, which bears Brock’s signature. In the case of two other commissions, however, the Queen’s University Belfast war memorial, which Brock had taken no further than the small model, and the memorial to Frederick Ducane Godman and Osbert Salvin, Natural History Museum, for which Brock had produced only the preliminary design, Wright himself signed the completed works. His own most prominent commission is the war memorial, 1922, at Lloyd’s Register, London. Wright was a regular exhibitor at the RA, 1903–35, showing 28 works, a mixture of ideal works and portraits. He was a member of the RBS from 1906 (ARBS 1923–36, FRBS 1936–42, and honorary member 1942–61).

Sources: Brock, F., Thomas Brock: forgotten sculptor of the Victoria memorial (ed. J. Sankey), Bloomington, Indiana, 2012; Mapping Sculpture; Royal Academy of Arts website.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Jonathan Wylder (b. 1957)

Sculptor, born in Salisbury, Wilts. Wylder began as a painter, turning to sculpture only in his thirties. His main interest is the human form, modelling in clay for casting in bronze. His public commissions include a statue of Robert Grosvenor, First Marquis of Westminster, 1998, and a bust of the architect E.G. Basevi, 2000, both Belgrave Square; The Mermaid, 2008, Royal Yacht Squadron, Jubilee Haven, Cowes, Isle of Wight; and a statue of Tony ‘Bomber’ Brown, 2014, West Bromwich Albion Football Club.

Sources: Jonathan Wylder website; The Wykeham Gallery – Jonathan Wylder.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

David Wynne (1926–2014)

Sculptor born in Lyndhurst, Hampshire. He attended Stowe school, Buckinghamshire, joined the Royal Navy in 1944 and, after the war, studied zoology at Trinity College, Cambridge. However, both he and the dons realised he had little academic potential and, with their blessing, he forewent his exams to practice his art. He received early encouragement from Jacob Epstein who persuaded his father to buy him a studio. Wynne was self-taught, apart from a few lessons with Georg Ehrlich (for whom his future wife, Gilli, was then modelling) and three months learning to carve stone in Paul Landowski’s workshop in Paris. He held his first one-man show at the Leicester Galleries in 1955, finding and cultivating wealthy and loyal patrons from the start of his career. Wynne first achieved widespread attention with his LCC commission, Guy the Gorilla, 1960–61, for Crystal Palace Park. Despite his popular success, Wynne was never accepted by the art establishment and his head of Oscar Kokoschka, 1965, given to the Tate by a private benefactor remains in store. In 1964, he sculpted portrait heads of The Beatles, developing a friendship with them and particularly with George Harrison to whom he introduced the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (whose portrait head he had earlier modelled). Wynne executed portrait heads and busts of numerous other famous people including Queen Elizabeth II; Charles, Prince of Wales; Sir Yehudi Menuhin; and Sir Thomas Beecham. He designed the linked hands on the 1973 50p pieces that marked Britain’s entry into the European Economic Community and also the Silver Jubilee medal of 1977. His public sculptures including River God Tyne, 1968, Newcastle upon Tyne; Girl with a Dolphin, 1973, outside the Tower Hotel, Tower Bridge; Boy with a Dolphin, 1974, Cheyne Walk, Chelsea; The Messenger, 1981, Sutton; and a statue of Fred Perry, 1984, All England Club, Wimbledon. Wynne considered his Christ in Glory, 1985, for the front of Wells Cathedral, his most important commission; his most controversial is without doubt the brightly coloured Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother Memorial Gates, 1992, at Hyde Park Corner, lambasted by critics but evidently loved by the royal family. He was appointed OBE in 1994. Wynne married in 1959, but his wife, Gilli, died of cancer in 1990; she had a son and a daughter from her first marriage and Wynne and she had two sons; the younger son, Roland, committed suicide in 1999 and Wynne’s stepson, Jonathan, died in a motorcycle accident in 2007.

Sources: Elliott, D., Boy with a Dolphin. The Life and Work of David Wynne, London, 2010; Lloyd, F., et al, Public Sculpture of Outer South and West London, Liverpool, 2011; Stone, J. (ed.), The Sculpture of David Wynne 1969–1974, London, 1975; Stone, J. (ed.), The Sculpture of David Wynne 1974–1992, London, 1993; Usherwood, P., et al, Public Sculpture of North-East England, Liverpool, 2000; online obituaries: Daily Telegraph, 9 September 2014; The Times, 15 September 2014; The Guardian, 23 September 2014.

T. Cavanagh November 2022

Arthur Stanley Young (1876–1968)

Sculptor and medallist born in Chelsea, the son of Henry Young, the bronze founder. Arthur usually styled his name Stanley Young or A. Stanley Young. He studied at the RA Schools, 1897–1902, in 1899 gaining the Landseer Scholarship. In about this same year, he executed the bronze relief (presumably cast at his father’s foundry) for the headstone of the tomb of his cousin, Horace Lott, in Brompton Cemetery, Kensington. In February 1902, his entry for one of the RA School’s competitions, a relief entitled Boadicea urging the Britons to avenge her outraged daughters, illustrated in The Studio. Young’s most important public commissions were for Norwich Union Life Assurance: two relief panels, Solace and Protection, 1906, for the Norwich office, and an allegorical group, Prudence, Justice and Liberality, 1913, for the Fleet Street branch, London. For the architects Hart and Waterhouse, he modelled a figure of Mercury, 1910, for the roof of Willing House, Grays Inn Road. He exhibited at the RA summer exhibitions, 1898–1912. He was elected ARBS in 1923, resigning in 1927 and rejoining as FRBS in 1952. Young lived at 30 Trafalgar Square (now Chelsea Square), Chelsea, from c.1891 to c.1912.

Sources: Cocke, R., Public Sculpture of Norfolk and Suffolk, Liverpool, 2013; Mapping Sculpture; Ward-Jackson, P., Public Sculpture of the City of London, Liverpool, 2003.

T. Cavanagh November 2022