Hugo Daini (1919–1976)
Venezuelan sculptor, born in Rome. Between 1931 and 1935 he was a student at the School of Sacred Art in Rome, while working as an assistant in the workshops of sculptors Torquato Tamagnini and Lorenzo Ferri. In 1939, he entered the Academy of Fine Arts in Rome, but was conscripted into the Italian army following the outbreak of the Second World War; he resumed his studies after the war and graduated in July 1946. In 1948, he was one of three sculptors selected to represent Italy in the ‘XIV Olympiad Sport in Art’ exhibition at the V&A, London. A photograph of his bronze group, Japanese Wrestlers, was published in the ILN (24 July 1948, p. 93). In 1949, he emigrated to Venezuela and embarked upon a successful career producing statues of military heroes and liberators, most notably of Simon Bolivar, with standing statues in Caracas and in Belgrave Square, London, and equestrian statues in Barinas, Colón, Píritu and Turén, Venezuela; Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic; and Brussels, Belgium. Daini’s other commission, mostly in Venezuela, include monuments to the Founders of Cumaná, 1967, Cumaná, to the Venezuelan Soldier, 1971, Campo de Carabobo, Valencia, and to the First Republic, 1974, National Pantheon, Caracas.
Terry Cavanagh November 2022
Roger Dainton (b. 1943)
Self-taught electrical engineer who became a ‘kinetic artist by mistake’. Born in Bristol, he began by repairing television sets, later moving to the Netherlands to work for the Philips corporation in their development of colour television technology. This led to his involvement in the ground-breaking Cybernetic Serendipity exhibition at the ICA, London, in 1968, and his contribution of a short essay entitled ‘Simulated synasthesia’ to the published catalogue. At this time he became associated with the sculptor Philip Vaughan, with whom he collaborated on the Hayward Gallery’s Neon Tower (1970), a controversial work that was later removed but is, at the time of writing (April 2018), due to be reinstated. In addition to the now vanished Kinetic Sculpture on Picardy Place, Greenside, Edinburgh, significant works from this time include Domobility, a 9.1m neon dome erected as part of a mixed-media exhibition at the Serpentine Gallery in Hyde Park, London, in 1973. He produced several works for the eccentric American artist, philanthropist and prankster Stanley Marsh 3, including Nite Tree (1972–73), located on the edge of the prairie at Amarillo, Texas, and was involved in the creation of Cadillac Ranch (1974), also near Amarillo, by Marsh’s radical art collective Ant Farm. He produced very few sculptures after the mid-1970s, concentrating instead on his original vocation as an engineer.
Source: information from the artist.
Bibliography: T. Cavanagh, Public Sculpture of South London, Liverpool, 2007, pp. 29–30; R. McKenzie, Public Sculpture of Edinburgh (2 vols), Liverpool, 2018, vol. 1, p. 174, vol. 2, pp. 467–69; J. Reichardt (ed.), Cybernetic Serendipity: the computer and the arts, London, 1968, p. 43.
Ray McKenzie 2018
Anne Seymour Damer (1749–1828)
Sculptor and author, she was the granddaughter of John, 4th Duke of Argyll, and grew up in an aristocratic Whig family with strong literary connections. As a child she was influenced by her father’s secretary, David Hume, who is thought to have prompted her first efforts in modelling in wax, and by her guardian, Horace Walpole, from whom she inherited the proto-Gothic Revival mansion Strawberry Hill, where she lived from 1797 to 1811. After receiving lessons in modelling from Giuseppe Ceracchi, and in carving from John Bacon I, she developed a severely neoclassical style, often signing her work in Greek. She made portrait busts in marble of many notable contemporaries, such as Sarah Siddons (1789), Charles James Fox (1812) and Lord Nelson (1803), presenting plaster busts of the last two subjects to Napoleon on her visit to Paris in 1802. Her statue of George III (1787–94) is in the General Register House, Edinburgh. Among her literary efforts was the picaresque novel, Belmour (1801, translated into French 1804), and she had strong connections with the theatre, creating a three-metre statue of Apollo for the Drury Lane Theatre (c.1792, now destroyed). She died in London in May 1828, and was buried with her sculptor’s tools and apron at the church in Sundbridge, Kent.
Bibliography: R. McKenzie, Public Sculpture of Edinburgh (2 vols), Liverpool, 2018, vol. 2, pp. 181–85, 512; I. Roscoe et al, A Biographical Dictionary of Sculptors in Britain 1660–1851, New Haven and London, 2009; A. Yarrington, ‘Damer [née Conway], Anne Seymour’, ODNB, 2008.
Ray McKenzie 2018
Anne Seymour Damer, Self-portrait, marble, c.1785–86, Vasari Corridor, Uffizi Galleries, Florence. Inscribed front of socle: ΑΝΝΑ. ΣΕΙΜΟΡΙΣ / ΔΑΜΕΡ / Η. ΕΚ. ΤΗΣ. ΒΡΕΤΤΑΝΙΚΗΣ. / ΑΥΤΗ. ΑΥΤΗΝ. ΕΠΟΙΕΙ. (‘Anne Seymour Damer from Britain, of herself by herself’). (Photo: Michalis Famelis, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons)
Anne Davidson (1937–2008)
Sculptor. Born in Glasgow, Anne Davidson (née Ross) grew up in Aberdeen, where she was educated at the Convent of the Sacred Heart School and Gray’s School of Art. After graduating in 1959, she returned to her old school as principal art teacher, resigning in 1968 to become a full-time sculptor. Wide-ranging in her interests, her work is almost all figurative, and often motivated by humanitarian concerns. She was a member of the International Society of Christian Artists and the Society of Catholic Artists, and undertook numerous commissions for the Catholic Church in Scotland, including a figurine of St Margaret for the Bishop of Aberdeen, which was produced in an edition of 500, and later reproduced on a larger scale for churches in Dunfermline and London, as well as New Zealand and the USA. She was also a lecturer at Gray’s School of Art (1978–82), and in 1985 she established a sculpture workshop for the blind in Aberdeen, in collaboration with her husband and fellow sculptor, Jimmy Davidson.
Bibliography: R. McKenzie, Public Sculpture of Edinburgh (2 vols), Liverpool, 2018, vol. 1, pp. 273–76, vol. 2, p. xv; Scotsman, 19 January 2009 (obit.).
Ray McKenzie 2018
Architectural and ornamental sculptor. The earliest recorded work by Daymond seems to be the elaborate foliage carving on the Union Club (originally Thatched House Club), St James’s Street, London (architect Knowles, 1862). A fireplace by ‘Daymond of London’ is at Thoresby, Lincs., built 1865–75 by Anthony Salvin. From around 1880, the name occurs frequently in connection with architectural projects in London. The architects with whom Daymond’s firm chiefly worked were John Norton, Davis and Emmanuel, Treadwell and Martin, Sir H. Tanner, G. Sherrin, and F.W. Marks. Already in 1881, in connection with their largest endeavour, the figurative sculpture on Davis and Emmanuel’s City of London School, it is referred to as J. Daymond and Son. The firm continued active under this name up to 1935 at its address in Edward Street, Vincent Square, Westminster. Advertisements for its products between 1901 and 1907, in the magazine Academy Architecture, include photographic illustrations of the workshop, with stone-carvers at work.
Bibliography: T. Cavanagh, Public Sculpture of Kensington and Chelsea with Westminster South-West, Watford, 2023, pp. 450, 451; P. Ward-Jackson, Public Sculpture of the City of London, Liverpool, 2003, pp. 4–5, 108, 395, 397, 421–22, 424–26; P. Ward-Jackson, Public Sculpture of Historic Westminster. Volume 1, Liverpool, 2011, pp. 22–24, 113; plus various volumes of Pevsner Architectural Guides (The Buildings of England); Post Office London Directory.
Philip Ward-Jackson February 2023
Remco De Fouw (b. 1962)
A sculptor specialising in public art, he trained as a carpenter before graduating from the National College of Art and Design, Dublin, in 1991. He has exhibited widely in Ireland and in the UK, and his public commissions include Perpetual Motion, beside the M7 motorway near Naas, Co. Kildare (1996), and Waggle Dance, at Maynooth University (2015), both in collaboration with Rachel Joynt. In 1997 he was a recipient, also with Joynt, of the Cream of Irish Award in Sculpture.
Bibliography: Rachel Joynt website – public art; R. McKenzie, Public Sculpture of Edinburgh (2 vols), Liverpool, 2018, vol. 1, pp. 135–37.
Ray McKenzie 2018
Elizabeth Strachan Dempster (1909–1987)
A sculptor and carver in wood and stone, she was born in Greenock, but moved to Edinburgh in 1930 after a brief spell living in Kent. She studied under Alexander Carrick at Edinburgh College of Art, where she was part of an outstanding group of students that included Hew Lorimer, Tom Whalen and Scott Sutherland, later completing her studies at the Regent Street Polytechnic, London, and the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich. Many of her larger works have been lost, including a colossal plaster mermaid for the Empire Exhibition, Glasgow, 1938, and an oak figure of the Old Testament musician Jubal with a pair of angels for the organ case at St Giles Cathedral (1938–40; removed 1993). An important work that has survived, however, is the group of concrete reliefs of the symbols of the Four Evangelists on the exterior of St Francis Xavier RC Church, Falkirk, 1961, complementing the colossal statue of the saint by Maxwell Allan. She was elected an Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy in 1960.
Bibliography: W.T. Johnston, Dictionary of Scottish Artists (c.2000), Scottish National Library, ref CD-ROM.585; P.J.M. McEwan, The Dictionary of Scottish Art and Architecture, Ballater, Aberdeenshire, 2004; R. McKenzie, Public Sculpture of Edinburgh (2 vols), Liverpool, 2018, vol. 1, pp. 152–53, vol. 2, pp. 308–09, 312, 313.
Ray McKenzie 2018
Helen Denerley (b. 1956)
Born in Roslin, Midlothian, she studied at Gray’s School of Art, Aberdeen, 1973–77, becoming a sculptor utilising farming implements, industrial machinery and scrap metal. Her commissions include Musical Play Sculpture, for Aberdeen District Council (1977); Sundial in Steel and Granite, Sheltered Housing Complex, Inverurie (1991); Govan Milestone, for the Govan Housing Association, Glasgow (1994); and Dreaming Spires, Leith Walk, Greenside, Edinburgh (2004–05). A founder member of Aberdeen Community Arts Association, 1982, she was Director of Upper Donside Community Trust and Strathfest, 1989–94, and in 1995 she was elected a professional member of the Society of Scottish Artists. She exhibits frequently at the Kilmorack Gallery, Beauly, and her work has been seen in solo and group exhibitions throughout the UK, as well as in Japan, Belgium and Italy. Her Ammonite, commissioned for the birthplace of the geologist Hugh Miller, Cromarty, in 2008, was the winner of the IAA Awards for Architecture
Bibliography: R. McKenzie, Public Sculpture of Edinburgh (2 vols), Liverpool, 2018, vol. 2, pp. 135–38, 512–13; The Scotsman, 12 May 1999, p.26; information from the artist.
Ray McKenzie 2018
Thomas Denman (b. 1787; d. after 1847)
Prolific, London-based carver of statues, church monuments and mural tablets who worked for many years in the studio of his brother-in-law John Flaxman, and whose unfinished commissions he completed on the latter’s death in 1826, a notable example being the statue of Robert Burns, 1821–28, originally Regent Road, Edinburgh, now Scottish National Portrait Gallery. His own work was described by Gunnis as ‘uninspired and dull, except when they borrow a Flaxman design’. Surviving independent work includes the colossal figure group in Coade stone on the parapet of General Anderson’s Institution (now a care home for the elderly) in Elgin, Moray, Scotland, dating from 1833. The last known date for Denman is 1847, the year in which he became bankrupt.
Bibliography: R. Gunnis, Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660–1851, London, ; R. McKenzie, Public Sculpture of Edinburgh (2 vols), Liverpool, 2018, vol. 2, pp. 385–90; I. Roscoe et al, A Biographical Dictionary of Sculptors in Britain 1660–1851, New Haven and London, 2009.
Ray McKenzie 2018
Louis Reid Deuchars (1870–1927)
Sculptor and landscape painter, he was born in Comrie, Perthshire, and studied at Glasgow School of Art (1887–88), before joining the studio of George Frederick Watts in Compton, Surrey, where he assisted with the production of, among other works, Physical Energy (1883–1904). He later briefly assisted Pittendrigh Macgillivray on the Monument to W.E. Gladstone in Edinburgh. As an independent sculptor his most celebrated works are the small figures in both bronze and wood he contributed to various ecclesiastical schemes, such as the Thistle Chapel in St Giles Cathedral (1909–11), for Robert Lorimer, and the altar in the chapel at Mountstuart, Isle of Bute (1912), for Rowand Anderson.
Bibliography: W.T. Johnston, Dictionary of Scottish Artists (c.2000), Scottish National Library, ref CD-ROM.585; P.J.M. McEwan, The Dictionary of Scottish Art and Architecture, Ballater, Aberdeenshire, 2004; R. McKenzie, Public Sculpture of Edinburgh (2 vols), Liverpool, 2018, vol. 1, pp. 222, 454, 463, vol. 2, pp. 55, 513.
Ray McKenzie 2018
Sir William Reid Dick (1878–1961)
Sculptor born in Glasgow on 13 January 1878, son of an engine fitter. This date, corresponding with that given on his birth certificate, is also that given by S.C. Hutchison in the original Dictionary of National Biography entry, though, in a more recent edition of the DNB and elsewhere, a later date of 1879 has got into circulation. After serving a five-year apprenticeship in a stonemason’s yard, he went on to Glasgow School of Art (1906–07). In 1907 he came to London, and started exhibiting at the RA in the following year. In his pre-war statuettes, such as The Catapult (RA 1911) and The Kelpie (RA 1914), he showed remarkable skill in figure composition in the round. From 1916 to 1918 he performed military service in France and Palestine. As a sculptor of First World War memorials, Dick’s most impressive contribution was the gigantic lion crowning the Menin Gate at Ypres, erected in 1927. Between the wars, he distinguished himself with monumental architectural sculptures, many of them for City of London buildings. His magnum opus, the sculpture for the Kitchener Memorial Chapel in St Paul’s (1922–25), is also in the City, though not within the scope of this volume. He collaborated with the architects Edwin Lutyens, Sir John Burnet, James Lomax Simpson and Reginald Blomfield. He was President of the Royal Society of British Sculptors from 1933 to 1938. In 1938 he became the King’s (later the Queen’s) Sculptor in Ordinary for Scotland. He executed effigies of George V and Queen Mary for St George’s Chapel, Windsor, and later, in 1947, the standing figure of George V for Old Palace Yard, Westminster. His public sculpture from the post-war years also includes the equestrian Lady Godiva for Coventry (c.1950) and Franklin D. Roosevelt for Grosvenor Square, London (1950).
Bibliography: S.C. Hutchison, ‘Dick, Sir William Reid (1878–1961)’, DNB, 1981; F. Lloyd et al, Public Sculpture of Outer South and West London, Liverpool, 2011, pp. 138, 139, 169; R. McKenzie, Public Sculpture of Edinburgh (2 vols), Liverpool, 2018, vol. 1, p. 132, vol. 2, pp. 202–03, 206–07, 370–71, 373–79, 513; R. McKenzie, Public Sculpture of Glasgow, Liverpool, 2002, pp. 247, 261, 279, 482; Mapping Sculpture; E. Morris and E. Roberts, Public Sculpture of Cheshire and Merseyside, Liverpool, 2012, pp. xix, xxv, 162–66; Royal Society of Sculptors website; J. Seddon et al, Public Sculpture of Sussex, Liverpool, 2014, pp. 57, 58–59; P. Ward-Jackson, Public Sculpture of the City of London, Liverpool, 2003, pp. 18–20, 141–42, 229–30, 278–80, 299–300, 410–11; P. Ward-Jackson, Public Sculpture of Historic Westminster. Volume 1, Liverpool, 2011, pp. 54–57, 143–44, 160–63, 357–59; D. Wardleworth, William Reid Dick, Sculptor, Farnham, 2013; T. Wyke, Public Sculpture of Greater Manchester, Liverpool, 2004, p. 225.
Philip Ward-Jackson October 2023
Unknown photographer, Sir William Reid Dick with his statue of Lady Godiva, bromide print, c.1948, NPG x194077 (photo: © National Portrait Gallery, London)
Pierre van Dievoet, or Dievot (1661–1721)
Sculptor originating in Brussels. He worked in England as an assistant to Grinling Gibbons and, with Laurens van der Meulen, ‘modelled and made’ Gibbons’s statue of James II, Trafalgar Square, and probably cast his Charles II, Royal Hospital Chelsea (both c.1685/86). According to George Vertue, Dieveot ‘left England in the troubles of the Revolution’ (1688–89). He returned to Brussels, where in 1695 he was master of the Quatre-Couronnés, the guild of stonemasons and sculptors, and enjoyed a successful career as a sculptor.
Bibliography: T. Cavanagh, Public Sculpture of Kensington and Chelsea with Westminster South-West, Watford, 2023, pp. 84, 86; G. Vertue, Vol. IV, Walpole Society, no. xxiv, 1935/36, p. 50; P. Ward-Jackson, Public Sculpture of Historic Westminster. Volume 1, Liverpool, 2011, pp. 291–93; Wikipedia.
Terry Cavanagh November 2022
Nicholas Dimbleby (b. 1946)
Sculptor. His father was the broadcaster and journalist Richard Dimbleby (1913–1965) and his older brothers, the broadcasters David and Jonathan Dimbleby. He studied sculpture from 1968, initially at Edinburgh College Art and subsequently at Goldsmith’s and Central St Martin’s where he took his degree in Fine Art. Dimbleby began working as an assistant to the abstract sculptor William Pye, but once he had set up independently returned to figurative sculpture, his first interest. Dimbleby’s chief public sculpture commissions include Elephant Seat, Leamington Spa, installed in Whitehead Court shopping centre, 1988, relocated to Jefferson Gardens, 2008; Captain Cook as a Youth, Great Ayton, Hambleton District, North Yorkshire, 1997; memorial plaque to Elizabeth Barrett Browning, St Marylebone parish church, 2006; portrait statues of James Abbott McNeill Whistler, 2005, Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, Christie Hennessy, Tralee, County Kerry, 2008, and Jimmy Hill, Ricoh Arena, Coventry, 2011; and war memorials at Cranleigh School, Surrey (‘Leaving’, 2016) and Aviva headquarters, City of London (‘Absent’, 2018). He also modelled his father’s memorial plaque for Westminster Abbey (dedicated 1990).
Bibliography: T. Cavanagh, Public Sculpture of Kensington and Chelsea with Westminster South-West, Watford, 2023, pp. 41–44; Nicholas Dimbleby website; G.T. Noszlopy, Public Sculpture of Warwickshire, Coventry & Solihull, Liverpool, 2003, pp. 99–100.
Terry Cavanagh November 2022
Harry Dixon (1861–1941)
Painter, illustrator and sculptor, principally of wildlife, an interest nurtured by childhood trips to the London Zoo with his father who had been commissioned to photograph the animals. Dixon began his studies at the Heatherley School of Fine Art, but from 1883 to 1887 was in Paris, studying at the Académie Julian and in the studios of Bouguereau and Lefebvre. He carved four stone Lions for T.E. Collcutt’s Imperial Institute, South Kensington, 1887–93; following the demolition of the greater part of the buildings, 1956–65, two of the Lions were re-erected in front of the only significant survivor of the demolition, the Queen’s Tower, and two were relocated to the Commonwealth Institute (now in the grounds of Clarence House). Dixon exhibited both paintings and sculptures at the RA from 1885. In 1891, his watercolour, Lions, was purchased by the Chantrey Bequest for the Tate. He was a member of the AWG from 1891 (resigned 1898) and of the RBS from 1905.
Bibliography: T. Cavanagh, Public Sculpture of Kensington and Chelsea with Westminster South-West, Watford, 2023, pp. 321–22; Mapping Sculpture; Oxford Art Online – Benezit Dictionary of Artists.
Terry Cavanagh November 2022
Andrew Dods (1898–1976)
Edinburgh sculptor, educated at Boroughmuir School and apprenticed to a firm of masons before enlisting as a sniper in the First World War. On return to Edinburgh, he studied clay modelling and stone carving at Edinburgh College of Art, before becoming an assistant to Pittendrigh Macgillivray. After Macgillivray’s death, he joined the staff of Edinburgh College of Art, where he remained for the rest of his life. He exhibited regularly at the Royal Scottish Academy. In Edinburgh, he executed two of the seven carved monoliths (‘Tangier, America and the Netherlands, 1633–1700’ and ‘The Peninsular Wars, Waterloo, 1740–1820’) for the Royal Scots Monument, Princes Street Gardens (1948–52), and a bronze portrait plaque of Robert Fergusson (c.1958) at the side entrance to the Royal High School.
Bibliography: P.J.M. McEwan, The Dictionary of Scottish Art and Architecture, Ballater, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, 2004; R. McKenzie, Public Sculpture of Edinburgh (2 vols), Liverpool, 2018, vol. 2, pp. 308, 491.
Ray McKenzie 2018
Doulton & Co (est. 1815)
Pottery established by John Doulton at Lambeth as Doulton & Watts, which name it retained until 1851, specialising in utilitarian stoneware. In the late 1830s the firm extended its range to include architectural sculpture and garden ornaments in terracotta, some of it designed by the sculptor Samuel Nixon. In 1858, the firm became Henry Doulton & Co and c.1860 began to revive earlier types of stoneware producing, from 1862, its famous salt-glazed wares with blue decorations. From 1866, the firm enjoyed a close association with John Sparkes and the Lambeth School of Art where many of its finest artists were trained, including George Tinworth, John Broad and Herbert Ellis. In 1884, the firm opened a porcelain factory at Burslem, Staffs. W.J. Neatby joined as head of the architectural department in 1889. In 1899, Doulton’s became a limited company and in 1901 was granted a royal warrant, entitling the pottery to style itself Royal Doulton. The Lambeth works was finally closed down in 1956. In addition to art pottery and architectural sculpture, Doulton’s produced a number of large-scale fountains and memorial statues.
Bibliography: P. Atterbury and L. Irvine, The Doulton Story. A souvenir booklet produced originally for the exhibition held at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, 30 May–12 August 1979, Stoke on Trent, 1979; T. Cavanagh, Public Sculpture of Kensington and Chelsea with Westminster South-West, Watford, 2023, pp. 122, 164, 165, 239, 240, 327, 328; T. Cavanagh, Public Sculpture of South London, Liverpool, 2007, pp. xv–xvi, 35–37, 61–63, 355–57; R. Cocke, Public Sculpture of Norfolk and Suffolk, Liverpool, 2013, pp. 28–30, 42–43, 50; D. Eyles, The Lambeth Doulton Wares (rev. L. Irvine), Shepton Beauchamp, Somerset, 2002; J. Fleming and H. Honour, The Penguin Dictionary of Decorative Arts, London, 1977, rev. edn. 1989; F. Lloyd et al, Public Sculpture of Outer South and West London, Liverpool, 2011, pp. 37, 38, 168, 244, 264, 302, 329; R. McKenzie, Public Sculpture of Glasgow, Liverpool, 2002, pp. 166–71, 351–52, 355–56, 439–40, 441–42; E. Morris and E. Roberts, Public Sculpture of Cheshire and Merseyside, Liverpool, 2012, pp. 55–56.
Terry Cavanagh November 2022
Conrad Dressler (1856–1940)
Sculptor and potter, born in London of German descent. He studied modelling under Lantéri at the National Art Training School, and also with Boehm and in France. He modelled a terracotta bust of Ruskin (RA 1885, no 2009) and in 1886 stayed with him at Coniston, receiving encouragement which influenced his stylistic development. Portrait busts were to be a major part of Dressler’s output; fine examples include William Morris, 1892, AWG, London; The Artist’s Wife, Nita Maria Schonfeld Resch, 1898, painted terracotta, V&A; Marianne North, marble, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. His architectural sculpture includes two relief panels in Ketton stone – Boy and Lanthorn and Lioness – for the porches of C.F.A. Voyseys’ 14 and 16 Hans Road, Kensington (1891–92) and two relief panels in Istrian stone for a series symbolising National Prosperity on St George’s Hall, Liverpool (1895). While still living at the family home at Glebe Place, Chelsea, Dressler met William de Morgan, who fired some of his early works. Dressler also set up his own foundry in Chelsea and carried out some cire perdu casting. In December 1893 he set up the Della Robbia Pottery at Birkenhead with Harold Rathbone. By 1897, he had moved to Marlow where he established the Medmenham Pottery which specialised in architectural tiles and large wall panels; it was here that he created the two faience friezes, The History of Hygiene, for Lever Brothers’ Sunlight Chambers, Dublin. He exhibited at the RA from 1883; in 1891 he was a founder member of the Chelsea Arts Club and was elected a member of the AWG, and in 1905, FRBS.
Sources: Beattie, S., The New Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1983; Mapping Sculpture; Miller, F., ‘A Sculptor-Potter: Mr Conrad Dressler, The Artist, 1900, pp. 169–76; Walker, R.P., ‘Conrad Dressler and the Medmenham Pottery’, The Journal of the Decorative Arts Society …, No. 18, 1994, pp. 50–60.
Terry Cavanagh November 2022
(Edward) Alfred (Briscoe) Drury (1856–1944)
Sculptor and painter. Born in London, Drury studied sculpture at the National Art Training School, South Kensington, under the French instructors, Jules Dalou and Edouard Lantéri. Between 1881 and 1885, he worked in Dalou’s Paris studio as an assistant, and, on returning to London, showed at the Royal Academy a Triumph of Silenus, which was strongly marked by the French sculptor’s influence. Work with J.E. Boehm and emulation of his contemporaries, such as Alfred Gilbert and George Frampton, helped him to form his own style. For his poetic pieces and allegories, Drury invented a characteristic female type. This proved most popular in the fanciful and dreamy busts of young girls, entitled Griselda and The Age of Innocence, both of which were frequently reproduced in bronze. A similar theme is given full-length realisation in the scantily clad lamp-holding female figures representing Morn and Even, which Drury sculpted for City Square, Leeds (1896). At the Paris International Exhibition of 1900, he won a gold medal for his statue of Circe, a bronze cast of which belongs to Leeds City Art Gallery. Drury’s many architectural commissions include colossal allegorical groups in stone on the War Office in Whitehall (1904) and four colossal female allegories in bronze on the downstream side of Vauxhall Bridge (1904–07). In commemorating the fallen of the South African War, Drury chose for Clifton College, Bristol, a ‘symbolic’ figure of St George (1904–05), and for Warrington, Lancs., a contemporary soldier of the South Lancashire Regiment (1907). A similar range of subject is found in his eight First World War memorials, that at Kidderminster, Worcs. (1922) being perhaps the most inventive in its combination of allegory and reality, and its inclusion of members of a grateful future generation. His most successful public statues were of historical figures, Richard Hooker for Exeter (1907), Elizabeth Fry for the Old Bailey (1913), and Joshua Reynolds for the forecourt of Burlington House. Drury was often assisted in his old age by his son, the etcher, Paul Drury.
Bibliography: S. Beattie, New Sculpture, New Haven and London, 1983; T. Cavanagh, Public Sculpture of Kensington and Chelsea with Westminster South-West, Watford, 2023, pp. 166–68, 171, 172; T. Cavanagh, Public Sculpture of South London, Liverpool, 2007, pp. 57, 121, 125–26; D. Merritt and F. Greenacre, with K. Eustace, Public Sculpture of Bristol, Liverpool, 2011, pp. lix–lx, 83–85; E. Morris and E. Roberts, Public Sculpture of Cheshire and Merseyside, Liverpool, 2012, pp. xxv–xxvi, 233–34; G.T. Noszlopy, Public Sculpture of Birmingham, Liverpool, 1998, p. 134; G.T. Noszlopy and F. Waterhouse, Public Sculpture of Herefordshire, Shropshire and Worcestershire, Liverpool, 2010, pp. xxv, 217–18; J. Seddon et al, Public Sculpture of Sussex, Liverpool, 2014, pp. 53–54; B. Thomas (ed.), Alfred Drury and the New Sculpture (exh. cat.), Canterbury, 2013; P. Ward-Jackson, Public Sculpture of the City of London, Liverpool, 2003, pp. 77–79, 271–75, 334–36; P. Ward-Jackson, Public Sculpture of Historic Westminster. Volume 1, Liverpool, 2011, pp. 14–15, 132; D. White and E. Norman, Public Sculpture of Sheffield and South Yorkshire, Liverpool, 2015, pp. v, xiii, xvii, xix, 142–47; J. Winfrey, ‘Leeds City Square: T. Walter Harding and the realisation of a sculptural vision’, in Sculpting Art History, Essays in Memory of Benedict Read (eds. K. Eustace et al), London, 2013, pp. 218–33.
Philip Ward-Jackson, 2023
Mildred Norris Laker, Alfred Drury, c. 1906–11, bromide print (photo: © National Portrait Gallery, London)
M. Dujardin (fl. 1870s)
Of the M. Dujardin who modelled the terracotta decorations on Alfred Waterhouse’s Natural History Museum at South Kensington (completed 1881), very little is known for certain. His employers on the museum decoration were the firm of architectural sculptors, Farmer & Brindley, who described him as their foreman. An accomplished sculptor with a developed skill in the special discipline of modelling in clay for baking as terracotta, Waterhouse clearly thought highly of him. It is likely that the ‘M’ with which his surname is sometimes preceded merely stands for ‘Monsieur’. Three possible identities have been suggested. The first is Auguste Dujardin (born 1847 in Paris; d. c.1918), who showed a marble medallion at the Salon of 1866 and worked as an architectural sculptor at Metz. The second is Edouard Romain Dujardin (born c.1829 in Rouen; d. 1885 in London), who is recorded living at addresses in Lambeth (c.1861) and Camberwell (1884–85). Although listed in the census returns as a wood sculptor/carver (he submitted two wood carvings, Dog’s head and Birds and flowers, to a competition for art workmen arranged by the Society of Arts in 1867) he also submitted a model in plaster, Panel of spring flowers, to the same competition in 1868 and a terracotta sculpture, Gossiping, to the RA in 1884; these examples show at least that animals and flowers were within this particular Dujardin’s range. Although neither of the aforementioned possibilities are particularly compelling, a stronger candidate came to light more recently with the 2003 acquisition by the Natural History Museum archives of a volume of drawings entitled: ‘Some details of the enrichments of the new Museum of Natural History (South Kensington) modelled by C. Dujardin for A. Waterhouse …’. Of C. Dujardin – supposing the initial to be correctly recorded – there is no reference anywhere else. It has been suggested that the reason for the ostensible disappearance from English records of such a highly skilled artist in terracotta immediately after the completion of the Natural History Museum scheme may be that he went to the USA, where the demand for his services was greater and more remunerative.
Bibliography: Building News: (i) 4 February 1876, p. 111, (ii) 11 February 1876, p. 157 (letter to the editor from Farmer & Brindley), (iii) 25 February 1876, p. 210 (letter to the editor from ‘J.R.’); T. Cavanagh, Public Sculpture of Kensington and Chelsea with Westminster South-West, Watford, 2023, pp. 138–41; C. Cunningham, The Terracotta Designs of Alfred Waterhouse, Chichester, West Sussex, 2001; Journal of the Society of Arts: (i) 4 January 1867, p. 98 (no. 84), p. 99 (no. 85), (ii) 10 January 1868, p. 121 (no. 56); Mapping Sculpture; H. Pethers, ‘Alfred Waterhouse and his Terracotta Ark’, 27 March 2014, Natural History Museum; C. Yanni, ‘Divine Display or Secular Science. Defining nature at the Natural History Museum in London’, Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, vol. 55, no. 3, September 1996, pp. 276–98.
Terry Cavanagh September 2023
Edme Dumont (1722–1775)
Sculptor and engraver chiefly of mythological subjects who was born and lived all his life in Paris. His father, François Dumont, was a sculptor, as was his son, Jacques-Edme Dumont. He trained under Edme Bouchardon and won the Prix de Rome for sculpture in 1748 (though never visited Italy). In 1752, while still a student at the École des Elèves Protégés, he was accepted by the Académie Royale, but only received as a full member in 1768 on presentation of his marble reception piece, Milo of Croton (h. 0.78cm; Louvre). Dumont exhibited at the Paris Salon, 1753–71; his major works include Cephalus contemplates the present from Procris and Diana and Endymion asleep. He also executed pedimental sculptures for the Manufacture de Sèvres and the Hôtel de la Monnaie, Paris.
Bibliography: T. Cavanagh, Public Sculpture of Kensington and Chelsea with Westminster South-West, Watford, 2023, pp. 187, 188; Oxford Art Online: (i) Benezit Dictionary of Artists; (ii) Grove Art Online.
Terry Cavanagh November 2022
French School, 18th century, Edme Dumont, oil on canvas (photo: public domain)
John Duncan (1866–1945)
Painter in oils and tempera, muralist, stained glass designer and illustrator. Born in Dundee, he was closely associated with the town planner and environmentalist Patrick Geddes, for whom he carried out various decorative schemes, such as the series of scenes from Scottish history in the Common Room of Ramsay Garden (1896). He also contributed illustrations to Geddes’ magazine, The Evergreen: a northern seasonal (1895), in which he blended a revivalist interest in Celtic folklore with influences from French Symbolism and Art Nouveau. His works in sculpture are extremely rare.
Bibliography: P.J.M. McEwan, The Dictionary of Scottish Art and Architecture, Ballater, Aberdeenshire, 2004; R. McKenzie, Public Sculpture of Edinburgh (2 vols), Liverpool, 2018, vol. 1, p. 439.
Ray McKenzie 2018
Antoine-Aubin Durenne (1822–1895)
French iron and bronze founder, born in Paris. He attended, in Angers, the École des Arts et Métiers, 1837–41, and then in Paris, the École centrale des arts et manufactures, 1841–43, and, from 1843, the École des Beaux-Arts. In 1855, he bought the Sommevoire foundry, Haute-Marne, north-eastern France. In addition to its steady production of decorative metalwork, the high quality of the foundry’s casts attracted many of the leading French fine-art sculptors of the day, including Auguste Bartholdi, Albert-Ernest Carrier-Belleuse, Eugène Delaplanche, Emmanuel Frémiet and Mathurin Moreau. Durenne exhibited his products for the first time at the International Exhibition of 1862 at South Kensington. His principal contribution was a great fountain, displayed on the Royal Horticultural Gardens lawn adjacent to the exhibition building, with cast-iron figures designed and modelled by Jean-Baptiste-Jules Klagmann. It remained on site until early 1863, at which point it was dismantled and a pared-down version sold (its outlying groups having been removed for reasons of cost) to a private purchaser, the Scottish businessman Daniel Ross, who subsequently presented it to the city of Edinburgh. Thereafter known as the Ross Fountain, it was eventually erected in Princes Street Gardens West in 1872. In recognition of his achievement at the 1862 exhibition Durenne was appointed chevalier of the Légion d’honneur. His foundry was the recipient of awards at successive universal exhibitions, most notably Paris 1867 (medaille d’or), Rome 1870 (grand prix), Vienna 1873 (diplôme d’honneur) and Paris 1878 (grand prix); in Paris 1889, he was, as a member of the jury, hors concours. His contribution to Vienna had been another grand fountain, also with figures by Klagmann, this one being purchased by the Austrian city of Graz and erected in the city’s Stadtpark, where it was named the Emperor Franz Josef Fountain. Durenne was subsequently elevated to officier of the Légion d’honneur. At the time of writing the only other Durenne casts known to the writer to be publicly sited in the United Kingdom are the pair of lions, in Market Square, Aylesbury, Bucks, formerly at Waddesdon Manor, copies of the travertine stone lions at the foot of Antonio Canova’s Monument to Pope Clement XIII, 1792, in St Peter’s, Rome.
Bibliography: ‘Bulletin administratif no 9’, September 1895, pp. 554–569 : ‘Notices nécrologiques – Durenne (Antoine-Aubin)’ (PDF, from the website clio.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr, inactive at the time of writing); T. Cavanagh, Public Sculpture of Kensington and Chelsea with Westminster South-West, Watford, 2023, pp. xv–xvi; D.A. Cross, Public Sculpture of Lancashire and Cumbria, Liverpool, 2017, p. xx; R. McKenzie, Public Sculpture of Edinburgh (2 vols), Liverpool, 2018, vol. 2, pp. 324–32; Musée d’Orsay; Wikipédia.
Terry Cavanagh October 2023
Joseph Durham (1814–1877)
Sculptor. Born in London, he was apprenticed to the sculptor John Francis, and, after becoming free, worked in the studio of Edward Hodges Baily. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1835. Twenty years later, the Art Journal claimed that Durham had not yet achieved celebrity. However, in 1856 his bust of Queen Victoria was presented to the Guildhall, and he received the first of two commissions for statues illustrating subjects taken from English literature, for the Mansion House. Durham was the sculptor chosen in 1858 to create the Memorial to the Great Exhibition. This eventually took the form of a statue of Prince Albert, erected in the Gardens of the Royal Horticultural Society in 1863. With its accompanying seated personifications of Europe, Asia, Africa and America, this still stands close to its original site, behind the Royal Albert Hall. In 2019, Durham’s earlier project for this memorial, an electrotype bronze (dated 1862) of Queen Victoria as Peace, was found to be standing in Friary Park, Friern Barnet, London, where it had been erected in 1911 as a memorial to Edward VII. Durham chiefly distinguished himself with his single figures and groups of children. Some of these were of purely imaginary or literary inspiration. Others, such as Waiting his Innings (marble, 1866, Collection of the Corporation of the City of London), functioned both as genre subject and as portrait. Durham was also noted for the sculpture he provided for another distinctively Victorian monument type, the drinking fountain. He had received no formal training, and though elected an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1868, never became a full RA.
Bibliography: T. Cavanagh, Public Sculpture of Kensington and Chelsea with Westminster South-West, Watford, 2023, pp. xi, xvii, xix, 220, 347–60, 472; R. Cocke, Public Sculpture of Norfolk and Suffolk, Liverpool, 2013, pp. 212–13; E. Darby, ‘The Memorial to the Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations and a missing statue of Queen Victoria’, Sculpture Journal, Vol. IX, 2003, pp. 72–89; E. Morris and E. Roberts, Public Sculpture of Cheshire and Merseyside, Liverpool, 2012, pp. 128–29; G.T. Noszlopy, Public Sculpture of Warwickshire, Coventry & Solihull, Liverpool, 2003, pp. 19–20; G.T. Noszlopy and F. Waterhouse, Public Sculpture of Herefordshire, Shropshire and Worcestershire, Liverpool, 2010, pp. 121, 122; G.T. Noszlopy and F. Waterhouse, Public Sculpture of Staffordshire and the Black Country, Liverpool, 2005, p. 76; I. Roscoe et al, A Biographical Dictionary of Sculptors in Britain 1660–1851, New Haven and London, 2009; P. Ward-Jackson, Public Sculpture of the City of London, Liverpool, 2003, pp. xxiv, xxv, 244, 252, 255–56, 303–05; P. Ward-Jackson, Public Sculpture of Historic Westminster. Volume 1, Liverpool, 2011, pp. 115–16.
Philip Ward-Jackson, 2023
Joseph Durham, published 1878, Lock & Whitfield Sampson Low, Marston Searle and Rivington, woodburytype (photo: © National Portrait Gallery, London)