Skip to main content

Public Statues and Sculpture Association

Charles Henry Mabey II (1867–1965)

Architectural sculptor based at Vauxhall, the son of Charles Henry Mabey. Mabey carried on the business established by his father well into the twentieth century. In 1903, his firm tendered for the job of producing parapet figures for the new War Office building in Whitehall, but though it lost this commission to Alfred Drury, it did secure the contract for the building’s architectural sculpture. In 1910, the firm provided the model for Ralph Knott’s new County Hall building, subsequently carving all the architectural details to his designs, as well as the heraldic shields of the various London boroughs. The firm also executed architectural carving for Mewés and Davies’ RAC Club, Pall Mall, 1908-11, and Bernard George’s Derry & Toms Store, Kensington High Street, 1929–33. Mabey died at Worthing, 1 June 1965.

Bibliography: T. Cavanagh, Public Sculpture of Kensington and Chelsea with Westminster South-West, Watford, 2023, pp. 233–35; T. Cavanagh, Public Sculpture of South London, Liverpool, 2007, pp. 94–95; Mapping SculptureSurvey of London Monograph 17County Hall, London, 1991.

Terry Cavanagh November 2022

George MacCallum (fl. 1840–1868)

Edinburgh-born sculptor, the son of a joiner. Little is known of his life, and his recorded works are few. These include five busts, in both marble and plaster, of the architect David Bryce, various plaster decorations in the interior of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, and the monument to the 78th Highlanders (1862) on the Castle Esplanade, Edinburgh.

Source: Johnston, W.T., Dictionary of Scottish Artists (c.2000), Scottish National Library, ref CD-ROM.585.

Ray McKenzie 2018

Alexander MacDonald & Co

Firm of stonemasons established in Aberdeen by Alexander MacDonald (1794–1860). A visit to the British Museum in 1829 to see the newly-acquired Egyptian antiquities motivated MacDonald to revive the lost skill of working granite to a smooth, polished finish, which he did with machinery harnessing newly-developed steam power. In 1832, the first of his polished Aberdeen granite tombstones was installed at Kensal Green cemetery. Orders flooded in to MacDonald’s Aberdeen works and tons of granite was shipped down the east coast, up the Thames to London and carted to monumental masons’ yard and the recently founded cemeteries around the metropolis. From 1834 to 1853, MacDonald was in partnership with master mason and architect William Leslie, trading as MacDonald & Leslie. After Leslie’s departure and until his death in 1860, MacDonald ran the firm alone. After 1860, MacDonald’s son, Alexander MacDonald II (1837–84), managed the firm, initially with stone cutter Robert Ferguson, under a board of trustees, but in 1863 assumed direct control, with Sidney Field (a designer) as his partner, trading for the next 20 years as Alexander MacDonald, Field & Co. With the increased business of these years, the firm opened a London office at 369–375 Euston Road. Following Alexander II’s death in 1884, Ferguson (who had retained an interest in the firm) joined Field as a partner and the firm became a limited company, trading as Alexander MacDonald & Co Ltd. In 1912, the firm was acquired by Henry Hutcheon and thereafter traded as Henry Hutcheon Ltd until it closed in 1941. The firm received medals at the 1851 Great Exhibition, the Paris Expositions Universelles of 1867 and 1878, the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition of 1876, and Melbourne International Exhibition of 1880.

Sources: ‘Alexander MacDonald & Co. (flc.1820–1941)’, Glasgow – City of Sculpture; Curl, J.S. (ed.), Kensal Green Cemetery. The origins and development of the General Cemetery of All Souls, Kensal Green, London, 1824–2001, Chichester, West Sussex, 2001; Knee, R., ‘Alexander MacDonald (1794–1980) – Stonemason’, Friends of West Norwood Cemetery newsletter, January 2012, pp. 4–7.

Terry Cavanagh November 2022

MacDonald (Alexander) & Co

Tomb monument to Alexander Macdonald and family. Bronze tondo of Alexander Macdonald by George Anderson Lawson, Nellfield Cemetery, Aberdeen
(photo: public domain)

Patrick MacDowell (1799–1870)

Born in Belfast, but after the death of his father, his mother brought him with her to England. In 1813, MacDowell was apprenticed to a London coachmaker, who went bankrupt before the end of his term. MacDowell, who was lodging at this time in the house of the sculptor Peter Chenu, was encouraged by Chenu’s example to take up modelling. In 1822 he had a bust accepted for exhibition at the Royal Academy. MacDowell’s efforts were encouraged by other artists, and by wealthy amateurs. It was on the advice of John Constable that he entered the Royal Academy Schools in 1830, and T. Wentworth Beaumont financed an eight-month study trip to Rome. After the conclusion of his studies, MacDowell built up a reputation, based mainly on his pensive and sentimental ‘ideal’ female figures, such as A Girl Reading of 1838, commissioned in marble by the Earl of Ellesmere (a plaster version is in the collection of the Royal Dublin Society). Some of these figures were nudes, conceived in a classical idiom, such as the Lea, which MacDowell executed between 1853 and 1855 for the Egyptian Hall of the Mansion House. However, the list of MacDowell’s ‘ideal’ works also includes the highly dramatic Virginius and his Daughter, exhibited at the Great Exhibition in 1851. MacDowell executed statues of four historical figures for the Houses of Parliament. His memorial statue of the painter Turner (1851) is in St Paul’s Cathedral. MacDowell’s last work was the allegorical group of Europe for the Albert Memorial in Kensington Gardens. He was elected Royal Academician in 1846.

Source: Gunnis, R., Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660–1851, London, 1968.

Philip Ward-Jackson 2003

MacDowell, Patrick

Patrick MacDowell by Maull & Polybank, 1860-64, albumen carte-de-visite
(photo: © National Portrait Gallery, London)

James Pittendrigh Macgillivray (1856–1938)

Born in Inverurie, Aberdeenshire, the son of the sculptor William Ewan Macgillivray, he trained in the Edinburgh studio of William Brodie from the age of thirteen and in Glasgow with the ornamental plasterer James Steel, for whom he executed the interior decoration and carved elephant on the Scotia Theatre, Stockwell Street (renamed the Metropole, destroyed 1961). He later assisted John Mossman before becoming an independent sculptor with a studio at 112 Bath Street, Glasgow. A prolific portraitist, he produced busts and medallions of many of the leading artists and public figures of the day, such as Joseph Crawhall (1881), Sir John Lavery (1888), and Sir George Reid (1894), as well as numerous funerary monuments, including those to the architect James Sellars in Lambhill Cemetery, Glasgow (1890), and the philanthropist Beatrice Clugston in the Auld Aisle Cemetery, Kirkintilloch, East Dunbartonshire (1891). His small-scale pieces are well represented in collections in Edinburgh, Glasgow and Aberdeen, though his public works are less common. The most important of these include the monuments to William Ewart Gladstone, Coates Crescent Gardens, Edinburgh (1902–17), Robert Burns, Irvine, North Ayrshire (1895) and Lord Byron, Aberdeen (modelled in 1914; cast by Alexander J. Leslie in 1920). A painter, philosopher, musician and poet as well as a sculptor, he was a close associate of the group of artists known as the ‘Glasgow Boys’ and a co-founder of the Scottish Art Review. He also wrote a report for the Scottish Education Department, which contributed to the establishment of Edinburgh College of Art, and was active in the affairs of the Royal Scottish Academy. In 1921 he was appointed the King’s Sculptor in Ordinary in Scotland, the first to hold the post since Sir John Steell.

Sources: McEwan, P.J.M., The Dictionary of Scottish Art and Architecture, Ballater, Aberdeenshire, 2004; Melville, J., Pittendrigh Macgillivray, Aberdeen, 1988; Spielmann, M.H., British Sculpture and Sculptors of To-day, London, Paris, New York and Melbourne, 1901, p. 151; Scotsman, 30 April 1938, p. 17a-c. (obit.); Woodward, R.L., ‘Nineteenth-Century Scottish Sculpture’, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Edinburgh, 1977, pt 2, pp. 134-43.

Ray McKenzie 2018

Macgillivray, James Pittendrigh

Anonymous,  James Pittendrigh MacGillivray with a statuette of Lord Byron in the background (date unknown); Scottish National Portrait Gallery
(photo: Creative Commons CC BY-NC)

Kenny Mackay (b. 1966)

Sculptor based in Glasgow, he studied industrial design at Glasgow School of Art, graduating in 1988. His first professional experience in sculpture was in the studio of Alexander Stoddart, and since 1996 he has worked as a studio assistant for Kenny Hunter, collaborating with him on numerous important commissions, including Citizen Firefighter, Glasgow (2001) and An Elephant for Glasgow (2014). He has also worked with the artists Christine Borland, Lucy Skaer and Dalziel + Scullion. Among his independent commissions, the leading examples are the Monument to Donald Dewar, Glasgow (2002) and Liberty and Light (2016), which replaced the statue by James Ewing on the dome of the former Co-operative House on Morrison Street, Glasgow.

Source: information provided by the sculptor.

Ray McKenzie 2018

Samuel Mackenzie (1785–1847)

Sculptor and painter born in Cromarty, but working in Edinburgh under the influence of Sir Henry Raeburn. He worked for a marble cutter named Dalziel, of Leith Walk, where he made the transition from simple carving to ‘actual sculpture’ and modelling in clay, and where he met John D. Marshall, with whom he often collaborated, though never, apparently, as a business partner. He also worked for Thomas Telford, managing a large team of masons and hewers on various engineering projects. He was a friend of the sculptor Alexander Handyside Ritchie, who made use of his painted portrait of the Rev. David Dixon in his mural monument to the minister on the west wall of St Cuthbert’s Church, Princes Street, Edinburgh (1844). Elected Royal Scottish Academician in 1829, he exhibited 101 works at the RSA’s annual shows, none of which, however, were sculptures.

Sources: Johnston, W.T., Dictionary of Scottish Artists (c.2000), Scottish National Library, ref CD-ROM.585; McEwan, P.J.M., The Dictionary of Scottish Art and Architecture, Ballater, Aberdeenshire, 2004; Royal Scottish Academy archives, ‘Reminiscences of Samuel Mackenzie (1785–1847) by his son’, unpublished typescript, n.d., pp. 5–7.

Ray McKenzie 2018

Charlie Mackesy (b. 1962)

Illustrator and sculptor born in Northumberland and educated at Radley College, Abingdon, and Queen Elizabeth High School, Hexham. An atheist in his earlier years, Mackesy’s eventual acceptance of the Christian faith came with his conviction that its central purpose was the spreading of the message that all people have God’s unconditional love. A regular, and very popular, guest preacher at Holy Trinity Brompton (‘HTB’), London, the theme of all of his talks is his belief in the transcendent importance of love for one’s fellow human beings. Although he never attended art school, according to his own account he spent three months in America with a portrait painter where he learned about anatomy. He began his career as a cartoonist for The Spectator, subsequently working as a book illustrator for Oxford University Press. In 2003/4 he was one of the artists selected to work on Nelson Mandela’s Unity lithograph project. In 2019, he published his remarkably successful illustrated book, The Boy, The Mole, The Fox and The Horse, the main themes of which are love, friendship and kindness; by the end of 2020 it had sold over a million copies. His sculpture is similarly expressive of his beliefs, an example of which is his Return of the Prodigal, 2005 sited on the approach to HTB, an earlier variant of which was incorporated into the headstone over the grave of the political consultant Philip Gould (d. 2011) in Highgate Cemetery.

Sources: Charlie Mackesy website; Wikipedia.

Terry Cavanagh November 2022

Charles Hodge Mackie (1862–1920)

Painter, printmaker, mural artist and sculptor. He was born in Aldershot, but moved with his family to Edinburgh, where he studied at the University and the Royal Scottish Academy Schools; for most of his working life he lived in Kirkcudbright. As a painter of landscapes and portraits he was strongly influenced by the bold forms and bright colours of Paul Gauguin and the French Symbolist artists, carrying out mural decorations in that style for Patrick Geddes at Ramsay Garden, Edinburgh. His Nymph and Faun fountain group (1914; formerly in the garden of Westerlea House, Edinburgh, now in the National Museum of Scotland) is a rare example of his work as a sculptor.

Source: McEwan, P.J.M., The Dictionary of Scottish Art and Architecture, Ballater, Aberdeenshire, 2004.

Ray McKenzie 2018

Tom Macnair (fl. 1950–1952)

Sculptor from Kilmarnock, East Ayrshire, whose only recorded works are two carved monoliths – ‘The Marlborough Wars, 1700–40’ and ‘Egypt, India, South Africa, 1837–1901’ –  on the Royal Scots Monument, Princes Street Gardens (West), Edinburgh (1948–52). These were carried out at the request of Charles d’Orville Pilkington Jackson, after two Edinburgh sculptors, Thomas Whalen and Hew Lorimer, were unable accept an invitation to contribute to the scheme.

Bibliography: R. McKenzie, Public Sculpture of Edinburgh (2 vols), Liverpool, 2018, vol. 2, pp. 305, 308–09, 312–13.

Ray McKenzie 2018

Carlo Magnoni (c.1871–1961)

Sculptor, carver, playwright and anarchist. Born in Brescia, Italy, he was in London from 1901. Magnoni is known to have carved for Thomas Brock, although it has not been possible to find any specific examples. He also carved for Onslow Ford, the statue of T.H. Huxley (1900), Natural History Museum; and for Henry Fehr, the carvings on the Victoria Railway Station frontage (1909–10) and probably the Middlesex Guildhall, Parliament Square (1912–13), and the war memorials at Leeds (1922), Colchester (1923), and Burton upon Trent (1922). Magnoni also carved a portrait bust of Sante Caserio (the Italian anarchist who in 1894 had assassinated the President of France, Sadi Carnot) which he submitted to the 1906 RA and which, unsurprisingly, they rejected. He also carved the figures on the Waggoner’s Memorial, Sledmore, Yorkshire (1919–20), designed by Lieutenant Colonel Sir Mark Sykes. Two of his plays, both socio-political dramas, ‘I delitti delle comari’ and ‘Gli Irredenti’, were performed in the Club Cooperativo italiano, Greek Street, in 1915 and 1917 respectively. Magnoni is recorded as residing in Bywater Street, Chelsea, in 1901, Bovingdon Road, Fulham, in 1911, and in 1954, the date in which his naturalisation as a British citizen is recorded in The London Gazette, Bernard Gardens, Wimbledon.

Sources: Burch, S. ‘United Enemies’ (Blog), 15 November 2011; Historic England official list entries: (i) Burton upon Trent war memorial; (ii) Colchester war memorialLondon Gazette, 18 May 1954, p. 2931; Mapping Sculpture; Natural History Museum archives, ‘Statues 1927–1947’ (DF ADM/1004/700, 23, 95); Paolo, Pietro di, The Knights Errant of Anarchy: London and the Italian Anarchist Diaspora (1880-1917), Oxford, 2013, pp. 94n10, 99n32, 174–75, 194; The Sledmere War Memorial.

Terry Cavanagh November 2022

Alex Main (1940–2010)

Born in Edinburgh, he left school at fourteen, but after serving an apprenticeship with the Daily Mail, and working as a printer and compositor for the Chaucer Press, he returned to full-time education, training as an artist at Lowestoft School of Art, Loughborough College of Art, and Goldsmiths, University of London. He later moved with his family to Thurso in Caithness, where he worked as an art teacher until ill health forced him into early retirement. Among his commissions is the life-size bronze, Kenn and the Salmon, which was inspired by the novel Highland River by Neil M. Gunn, and was erected as a memorial to the writer in his home town of Dunbeath, on the east coast of Caithness, in 1991. It was, however, as a portrait sculptor that he achieved the most critical acclaim, producing bronze busts of, among others, the poets George Mackay Brown and Norman MacCaig, both c.1996 and now in the Scottish National Portrait Gallery.

Source: (Glasgow) Herald, 30 April 2010, p. 22 (obit.).

Ray McKenzie 2018

George Mancini (1903–1989)

Edinburgh-based bronze founder, who worked with many of the leading Scottish sculptors of the twentieth century. He was the son of Frederico Mancini, himself a foundryman, who moved c.1890 from Rome to London, where he cast works by Albert Toft, Alfred Gilbert and other sculptors associated with the New Sculpture movement. George had his first experience of casting in his father’s workshop at the age of twelve, but in 1924 he moved to Edinburgh, working first for McDonald & Creswick (for whom he cast Alexander Carrick’s statue of William Wallace at Edinburgh Castle), later setting up his own workshop at Eyre Terrace in 1931, and finally moving to Fountainbridge in 1935. He undertook regular casting work for Pittendrigh Macgillivray, John Massey Rhind and Alexander Proudfoot, but had a particularly close working relationship with Thomas Whalen, Phyllis Bone and Alexander Carrick. He also exercised a profound influence on several generations of students as a teacher of lost wax and plaster casting at Edinburgh College of Art. His larger castings included the 2.1m-high figure of a Sower for Kirkcaldy Municipal Building, Fife (1956), and a Ballerina for Dalkeith High School, Midlothian (1962), both by Whalen, but his most prestigious commission was the restoration of Alfred Gilbert’s figure of Eros from the Shaftesbury Memorial, Piccadilly Circus, London (c.1985). He gave up his foundry in the late 1970s, but continued to offer assistance and advice to sculptors working in Scotland, most notably Gerald Laing.

Sources: NPG British bronze sculpture founders; Pearson, F., ‘George Mancini, Bronze Caster’, in D. Macmillan (ed.), Scotland & Italy, Edinburgh, 1989, pp. 124–31.

Ray McKenzie 2018

Kirti Mandir (b. 1953)

Born in Nairobi, Kenya, he trained as an artist and teacher in India, gaining a certificate in metal casting at the Faculty of Fine Arts, Baroda, in 1978. His work is mainly, though not exclusively, figurative, often adapting the anthropomorphic forms of prehistoric sculpture to a contemporary aesthetic idiom, and occasionally blurring the distinction between works of art and functional objects. An acknowledged master of the techniques of bronze patination, he also works with stone and wood, but always with a high degree of attention to surface finish. In addition to his studio works, which have been exhibited throughout the UK and overseas, he has carried out several major public commissions, including the bronze Miners’ Memorial at Muirkirk (2004), and a statue of Robert Burns in New Cumnock (2011), both in East Ayrshire. Kirti Mandir was a visiting lecturer at Glasgow School of Art from 1988 to 1990, and has taught bronze casting in workshops in Scotland, Ireland and the USA. He currently lives at Glenbuck, East Ayrshire, where he has created a sculpture garden for displaying his work.

Source: Kirti Mandir website.

Ray McKenzie 2018

Orazio Marinali (1643–1720)

Sculptor who trained in Venice with Josse de Corte (1627–79) and was influenced by him, as is evidenced by the statues of St Rosa of Lima and St Pius V either side of the Lady Altar at Brompton Oratory, Kensington, London, and in other works such as his statues of the Virgin and Child with St Dominic and St Catherine (1679) for the altar of the Rosary in S Nicolò, Treviso, and the Virgin and Child with Saints, Angels and Putti for the cathedral in Bassano del Grappa. In addition to his numerous commissions for sacred statues, Marinali received many for secular figures to decorate gardens and parks. He and his workshop were particularly known for imaginary portraits of desperadoes (bravi) and characters drawn from popular entertainments, for example, the commedia dell’arte figures in the garden of the Villa Conti Lampertico (‘La Deliziosa’) at Montegaldella, near Vicenza.

Principal source: Oxford Art Online – Grove Art Online

Terry Cavanagh November 2022

Baron Carlo Marochetti (1805–1867)

Sculptor. He was born in Turin, but brought at an early age by his lawyer father to France. He studied sculpture under Francois-Joseph Bosio. His one attempt at the Rome Prize of the École des Beaux Arts proving a failure, he went to study in Rome at his own expense, and is said to have spent time in the studio of Bertel Thorvaldsen. Marochetti’s earliest works were in the neoclassical style, but after the revolution of 1830 he increasingly identified with the romantic school of sculptors. Under the July Monarchy, he was favoured by the new government with prestigious commissions; a relief of The Battle of Jemappes (1834) for the Arc de Triomphe de l’Étoile, and a colossal group of the Elevation of Mary Magdalen, for the high altar of the church of La Madeleine (1843). In 1838 Marochetti’s equestrian statue of the sixteenth-century Duke of Savoy, Emanuele Filiberto, was exhibited in the courtyard of the Louvre, before going off to its final destination, the Piazza S. Carlo in Turin. After its inauguration there in the same year, Marochetti was made a Baron of the Kingdom of Sardinia. His reputation suffered in France when it was discovered that he was to be commissioned, without competition, to create the tomb of Napoleon for the Invalides, but between 1840 and 1844 he was already establishing his reputation in the British Isles with the creation of an equestrian statue of the Duke of Wellington for Glasgow. After the Revolution of 1848 he moved to London, where he became a favourite of Prince Albert and Queen Victoria. Marochetti’s equestrian figure of Richard Coeur de Lion was shown outside the western entrance to the Crystal Palace in 1851, and was later cast in bronze and erected in Old Palace Yard, Westminster. He set up his own foundry in South Kensington and produced many statues and church monuments for locations throughout the British Isles. Statues and memorials by him were also erected in British India, and he was paid a large sum of government money for the Crimean War Memorial (1856) at Scutari in Turkey. Although pursued by controversy, Marochetti continued to receive prestigious commissions, especially from the royal family. After Prince Albert’s death, he was commissioned to produce the tomb with double effigy for the Royal Mausoleum at Frogmore. His colossal statue of Albert for the Albert Memorial was, however, regretfully turned down by the Queen and her advisors, after Marochetti’s death, and the job was given instead to John Henry Foley. During his English period, Marochetti experimented with polychromy. He became ARA in 1861 and RA in the year of his death.

Sources: McKenzie, R., Public Sculpture of Glasgow, Liverpool, 2002; Roscoe, I., et al, A Biographical Dictionary of Sculptors in Britain 1660–1851, New Haven and London, 2009; Ward-Jackson, P., ‘Marochetti, (Pietro) Carlo Giovanni Battista, Baron Marochetti in the nobility of Sardinia (1805–1867)’, ODNB, (2004), 2008; Obituaries in Illustrated London News and Times, 2 January 1868.

Philip Ward-Jackson 2023

Marochetti, Carlo, Baron

Baron Carlo Marochetti, albumen carte-de-visite by Camille Silvy, 31 March 1861, private collection
(photo: public domain)

John (Jock) Marshall (1888–1952)

Architectural carver employed regularly by many leading twentieth-century Scottish sculptors to translate their models into stone, including Phyllis Bone, Alexander Carrick, Hew Lorimer, Pilkington Jackson and Benno Schotz. In Edinburgh he carved a large sandstone panel replicating the masthead of The Scotsman (c.1904) on the Market Street façade of the paper’s former offices (now The Scotsman Hotel). He also worked on several major projects led by Robert Lorimer, such as the refurbishment of Lennoxlove House, East Lothian (1912) and Dunrobin Castle, Sutherland (1915–21), while beyond Scotland he is known to have contributed to the decoration of Birmingham Fire Station, Sheffield Central Library and the Municipal Buildings in Leeds. Trained at Edinburgh College of Art, he also produced small subject pieces for exhibition at the Royal Scottish Academy, with titles such as Meditation (1937), and Dawn and Evolution (both 1940).

Sources: Glasgow – City of Sculpture; Historic Environment Scotland, John Marshall Collection, Acc. No. 2005/77.

Ray McKenzie 2018

John D. Marshall (fl. 1802–1849)

Edinburgh sculptor about whom little is known except that he was employed by a marble cutter named Dalziel, whose workshop was on Leith Walk, and that he collaborated frequently with his friend and fellow marble cutter Samuel Mackenzie. Two such collaborations are the arms of the Bank of Scotland (1804–09), Bank Street, and (possibly) the sphinxes for Parliament House (before 1808), both Edinburgh. Marshall’s independent work includes the carved white marble mantelpiece featuring oxen ploughing and figures of War and Peace in the Music Room of William and Robert Adam’s Mellerstain House, Berwickshire. He was the uncle of the sculptor William Calder Marshall (1813–1894).

Sources: Johnston, W.T., Dictionary of Scottish Artists (c.2000), Scottish National Library, ref CD-ROM.585; Royal Scottish Academy archives, ‘Reminiscences of Samuel Mackenzie (1785–1847) by his son’, unpublished typescript, n.d., pp. 5–7.

Ray McKenzie 2018

William Calder Marshall (1813–1894)

Sculptor, born in Edinburgh, the son of a goldsmith. Marshall began his art studies at the Trustees’ Academy in 1830, and in 1834 moved to London, where he worked in the studios of Francis Chantrey and Edward Hodges Baily. On Chantrey’s recommendation, Marshall was accepted by the RA Schools in 1834, winning a silver medal in 1835. He studied in Rome, 1836–38, and in 1839 settled permanently in London. He showed at the RA 1835–91 (elected ARA 1844 and RA 1852); the British Institution, 1839–57; and the RSA, 1836–91 (elected ARSA in 1840, resigned when elected to the RA, made an honorary member at a later date). In 1844 he submitted statues of Geoffrey Chaucer and Eve to the Westminster Hall competition, on the basis of which he was awarded commissions for statues of Lord Clarendon, 1847, and John, Baron Somers, 1855 (erected in St Stephen’s Hall). In 1857, despite winning the £700 first prize for his design for the Wellington Monument for St Paul’s Cathedral, he was ultimately commissioned to execute only the series of reliefs for the Wellington Chapel (the commission for the monument going instead to Alfred Stevens). In 1878, Marshall was nominated a Chevalier of the Legion d’honneur in recognition of his services as a commissioner at that year’s Paris Exposition Universelle. He executed many ideal works, including Hero and Leander, 1839 (for the Art Union); Hebe Rejected, 1837 (National Gallery of Scotland); The First Whisper of Love, 1845, and Sabrina, 1847 (both Royal Dublin Society); Infant Satyr, 1845–49 (diploma work, RA, Burlington House); Griselda, 1853–55 (Mansion House, City of London); Undine, 1863 (Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool); and Stepping Stones, 1880 (Salford Art Gallery). His most important public commissions include statues of Sir Robert Peel, 1853, Manchester; Thomas Campbell, 1848 (installed 1855), Westminster Abbey; Samuel Crompton, 1862, Bolton; the ‘Agriculture’ group for the Albert Memorial; and a pedimental group for Bolton Town Hall, 1870. A self-portrait bust is in the Scottish National Portrait Gallery. Following Marshall’s death in 1894, his executors staged an exhibition of his works in his studio at 115 Ebury Street, Pimlico. Archival material on the sculptor is held in the RA archives (‘William Calder Marshall papers’ 12 volumes, 1835–81, ref. MAR) and the Henry Moore Institute (refs. 1992.55 and 1997.32).

Sources: Greenwood, M., ‘Marshall, William Calder (1813–1894)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; Mapping Sculpture; Roscoe, I., et al, A Biographical Dictionary of Sculptors in Britain 1660–1851, New Haven and London, 2009; Royal Academy of Arts website.

Terry Cavanagh November 2022

Marshall, William Calder

William Calder Marshall, Ralph Winwood Robinson,
c. 1889, published by C. Whittingham & Co, 1892,
platinum print (photo: © National Portrait Gallery, London)

Masefield & Co (active 1871–1886)

Art bronze foundry operating from Manor Iron Works, Manor Street, Chelsea. Its owner, Robert Masefield, had previously been a partner in the short-lived Holbrook & Co foundry (1869–1871) on the same site, the firm’s only known contracts before the partnership was dissolved in October 1870 being for two casts of Marshall Wood’s Statue of Queen Victoria, both intended for Canada; one still stands in Montreal, the other was decapitated by a Front de Libération du Québec bomb in 1963. Masefield & Co’s first known job was the casting in brass of John Birnie Philip’s four figures representing the ‘Practical Arts and Sciences’ for the Albert Memorial. The firm received a steady flow of orders throughout the 1870s from a small group of sculptors, the most notable being John Henry Foley and Thomas Woolner. For Foley Masefields cast Sir James Outram (1873, equestrian, Calcutta [Kolkata]), General Stonewall Jackson (1874, Richmond, Virginia, USA), Henry Grattan (1875, Dublin), Lord Rosse (1875, Parsonstown [Birr], Ireland), Charles John, 1st Earl Canning (1877, equestrian, Calcutta) and Lord Gough (1878, equestrian, for Dublin, since 1990 at Chillingham Park, Northumberland). Casts for Woolner include Lord Palmerston (1875, Parliament Square, London), Lord Lawrence (1874, Calcutta) and Sir Cowasjee Jehangir Readymoney (1875, Bombay [Mumbai]). Other casts include William Brodie’s Thomas Graham (1872, Glasgow) and Sir James Simpson (1876, Edinburgh); Matthew Noble’s Lord Mayo (1874, Ajmer, India); Amelia Robertson Hill’s David Livingstone (1876, Edinburgh), John Hutchison’s James Carmichael (1876, Dundee), Birnie Philip’s Colonel Edward Akroyd (1876, Halifax) and Albert Bruce Joy’s John Laird (1877, Birkenhead). Contracts for public statues seem to have dried up in the early 1880s, Masefield’s only known example from this period being Percy Wood’s Monument to Captain Joseph Brant for Ontario, which was cast on 2 January 1886, the year the foundry sold off all its plant, machinery, stock and stores.

Main sources: Daily News, 22 May 1869, p. 5 (republished from The Engineer); Freeman’s Journal, 14 October 1878, p. 5; Grace’s Guide to British Industrial History: Manor Iron WorksR. Masefield & CoRobert MasefieldLondon Gazette, 25 October 1870, p. 4620; NPG British Bronze Sculpture FoundersStandard, 19 August 1886, p. 8, col. a (classified ad for sale by auction of Manor Iron Works’ stock); Times, 14 November 1874, p. 8.

Terry Cavanagh August 2023

Paul Mason (1952–2006)

Sculptor and painter born in Bolton, Lancashire. He studied at Bolton College of Art & Design, 1970–71; Wolverhampton Polytechnic, 1971–74 (under John Paddison); and the RA Schools, 1974–77 (under Willi Soukop). In 1976, he was the winner of the RA Gold Medal. Mason taught at art schools in Loughborough and Staffordshire, and at Northumbria University, 1993–97, and Derby University, 2004–06 (where he was Professor of Sculpture). Residencies include Webster University, St Louis, USA (1986), Tate St Ives (1996), and Gloucester Cathedral (2000–01). In 1977, Sir Frederick Gibberd commissioned from Mason, Hinge, in red sandstone, for the Gibberd Garden, Harlow New Town; this was followed by two more pieces for the town, Vertex, 1979, Bardolino marble, for Broad Walk, and Courtyard, 1985, marble, for the Civic Centre. In 1988, Mason was lead artist in the Tudor Square project, Sheffield; despite its having received the City of Sheffield’s Design Award in 1993, it is now largely lost to subsequent redevelopments. Other major commissions include Above and Below, 1993, Ancaster limestone, for the National Maritime Building, Southampton; sculptures and mosaic panels, 1998, for Seaham Promenade, County Durham; and East Yar River Project, 2002, six sculptures in Portland stone sited along the river from Niton to Brading, and The Tyburn Group, 2002, two sculptures in marble, plus a lettered plaque in slate listing the significant place names associated with the course of the Tyburn river from its source at Shepherd’s Well, Hampstead, to its outlet into the Thames below Vauxhall Bridge.

Sources: Harlow Art Trust, Sculpture in Harlow, 2005, pp. 61–63, 106; obituary, 19 May 2006, Independent online; White, D., and E. Norman, Public Sculpture of Sheffield and South Yorkshire, Liverpool, 2015, pp. 283–85; Wikipedia.

Terry Cavanagh November 2022

Mason, Paul

Paul Mason in residence at Barbara Hepworth’s Studio
St Ives 1996 (photo: Joseph Mason, CC BY-SA 4.0,
via Wikimedia Commons)

Giuseppe Mazzuoli (1644–1725)

Sculptor. He is thought to have been born in Volterra, although soon after his birth his family moved to Siena where his architect father had been engaged to rebuild Prince Mattia’s palazzo. After initial training in Siena, Mazzuoli relocated to Rome where he entered the workshop of Ercole Ferrata. In 1675, he became a member of the Congregazione dei Virtuosi and in 1679 a member of the Accademia di San Luca. He is said to have concurrently run two workshops, one in Siena during the summer, the other in Rome in the winter. In 1679–89, he was engaged on a cycle of 12 marble statues of the Apostles for Siena Cathedral; no longer deemed stylistically appropriate by the late nineteenth century, they were purchased as a group by Father Charles Bowden and relocated to Brompton Oratory, London. One other major work remains in Siena, the Dead Christc.1673, for Santa Maria della Scala; the rest are in Rome: ‘Charity’, 1673–75, for Bernini’s Monument to Alexander VII in St Peter’s; statues of St John the Baptist and St John the Evangelist, 1677–79, for the Church of Gesù e Maria; a statue of ‘Clemency’, c.1684, for Mattia de’ Rossi’s Monument to Pope Clement X, St Peter’s; a statue of St Philip, 1711, for San Giovanni in Laterano, Rome; and the Monument to Angelo Altieri and his wife Laura Carpegna, 1709, for Santa Maria in Campitelli.

Sources: Butzek, M., ‘Giuseppe Mazzuoli e le statue degli Apostoli del Duomo di Siena’, Prospettiva, no. 61 (January 1991), pp. 75–89; Oxford Art Online: Benezit Dictionary of Artists and Grove Art Online.

Terry Cavanagh November 2022

Charles McBride (1851–1903)

Edinburgh sculptor, mostly of portrait busts, but also of ideal works, such as The Murmur of the Shell (marble, present whereabouts not known), and statuettes, including one of Gladstone that was ‘much admired’. Of the small number of monuments he produced, the finest is the marble recumbent effigy of Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquis of Argyll, in St Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh (1895). For the Monument to Sir Walter Scott, Edinburgh, he executed the figure of Dougal Gregor, a character from Rob Roy. He acted as an advisor to the philanthropist Andrew Carnegie in the purchase of paintings for his collection.

Sources: Johnston, W.T., Dictionary of Scottish Artists (c.2000), Scottish National Library, ref CD-ROM.585; The Scotsman, 18 December 1903, p. 4e.

Ray McKenzie 2018

Jessica McCain (b. 1965)

Sculptor and painter based in Tucson, Arizona, USA. Born in California, but raised in Alaska and Tennessee, she was taught by her father, the artist Buck McCain (b. 1943), then studied at the Art Students League, the Old Lyme Academy, Connecticut, and Scottsdale School of Art. In addition to her expressively treated figurines, she has undertaken a number of public commissions for life-size bronze figures, including St Mary and St Joseph for the church of St Thomas the Apostle in Tucson, and Mourning Heart, a group depicting the grieving widow of a dead serviceman and her children, erected at the Old Post Cemetery, Fort Huachuca, Arizona, in 1996. Outside St Cuthbert’s Church, Edinburgh, Scotland, is her bronze figure of ‘Bum’ the Dog (2006–07).

Sources: Allen, P.L., ‘Sculpting women into history’, Tucson Citizen, 6 August 1996; Fine Art America website: ‘About Jessica McCain’; email correspondence with the artist.

Ray McKenzie 2018

Keith McCarter (b. 1936)

Born in Scotland, he served in the Royal Artillery before entering Edinburgh College of Art in 1956. He was the winner of the Andrew Grant Scholarship in 1960, which enabled him to travel in Europe, and after a further period of travel in the USA he joined the staff of Hornsey College of Art, London, as a visiting lecturer. Among his early public commissions are several pre-cast abstract concrete murals for buildings, such as the former Ordnance Survey HQ at Maybush in Southampton (1969), and the former Strathclyde House in Glasgow (1978). The majority of his free-standing outdoor sculptures are in bronze, with the approach ranging from an exploration of large organic forms in the tradition of Henry Moore, such as Ridirich, in Aldgate, London (1980), to a more constructivist concern for geometric and mechanical forms, often exploiting the appearance of structural paradox, as with the interlocking parabolas of Judex, at Goodman’s Yard, London (1982). He is currently the director of Keith McCarter Associates, based in Galashiels in the Borders.

Sources: Keith McCarter website; McKenzie, R., Public Sculpture of Glasgow, Liverpool, 2002, pp. 106–07; Strachan, W.J., Open Air Sculpture in Britain, London, 1984, pp. 33, 89, 144, 265; Ward-Jackson, P., Public Sculpture of the City of London, Liverpool, 2003, pp. 50, 150.

Ray McKenzie 2018

Joseph Crosland McClure (c. 1871–1940)

Sculptor and teacher born in Higher Broughton, Manchester. He taught modelling at Liverpool School of Art and worked as an assistant to the Liverpool sculptor, Charles John Allen, notably on the latter’s decorative sculpture scheme for Everard & Pick’s Pare’s Bank, Leicester, 1900–01. By 1905, McClure had moved to Leicester, teaching at Leicester School of Art and working independently as a sculptor. By c.1911 he had a studio in Kensington, London. He showed small-scale sculptures, medallions and jewellery, 1900–14, at the Glasgow Institute of Fine Arts (seven times), the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool (eleven times), and the Royal Academy, London (eighteen times). Work dried up for McClure in the post-First World War years and he moved for a while to Calgary, Canada, where he found work as a barman. He later returned to England, dying in north London. While in Canada he told a newspaper reporter that his last important commission had been a statue of King George V in coronation robes for Madras (Chennai), India (for which he had been granted sittings at Buckingham Palace). McClure’s other commissions include stone figures of Truth and Wisdom, c.1905–06, for H.H. Thomson’s St Alban’s church, Leicester; a bronze sculpture of a soul being received into Heaven for a memorial tombstone to James Simpson (d. 1907), All Saints churchyard, Branksome Park, Poole, Dorset; decorative sculpture for the frontage of Stockdale Harrison’s Stamford, Spalding & Boston Banking Co building, Leicester, 1907; the Leicestershire South African War Memorial, 1908–09, Leicester; and two pairs of sculptural groups, The Music of the Woods and The Music of the Sea, and The Soul of Music and Municipal Beneficence, 1910–14, for Stockdale Harrison’s Usher Hall, Edinburgh. Examples of McClure’s work are also in Leicester Museum and Art Gallery (Portrait bust of Mrs Mary Stanion) and the Walker Art Gallery (Sunrise, Morning and Evening).

Bibliography: Architects’ Journal, 8 September 1920, pp. 261–62; T. Cavanagh, Public Sculpture of Leicestershire and Rutland, 2000, pp. 100–01, 157–66; J. Gifford et al, Edinburgh (The Buildings of Scotland), Harmondsworth, 1984; M. Hill et al, Dorset (The Buildings of England), New Haven and London, 2018; J. Johnson and A. Greutzner, The Dictionary of British Artists 1880–1940, Woodbridge, 1976; R. McKenzie, Public Sculpture of Edinburgh (2 vols), Liverpool, 2018, vol. 1, pp. 44–45; Mapping Sculpture; The Studio: (i) vol. xxiv, no. 104, November 1901, p. 137; (ii) vol. xxxiv, no. 146, May 1905, p. 351.

Terry Cavanagh October 2023

McDonald & Creswick (fl. c. 1920–1950)

Firm of metalworkers specialising in lost-wax casting, set up in Edinburgh by William McDonald (1887–1932) and the silversmith Charles Creswick (1883–1965; the son of the sculptor Benjamin Creswick) after the First World War. McDonald had previously formed a partnership with Charles d’Orville Pilkington Jackson, during which time they also collaborated with George Mancini, who went on to form his own company. The firm cast some of the bronze components of the Royal Scots Monument, Edinburgh (1948–52), and the bronze statue in George Henry Paulin’s Monument to Lord Lister in Kelvingrove Park, Glasgow (1924). After McDonald’s death in 1932, the firm continued under the management of a draughtsman named Bowden, but ceased trading around 1950.

Principal sources: Charles d’Orville Pilkington Jackson, unpublished ‘Memoir’, c.1968, n.p. [pp. 4, 8]; Mapping Sculpture.

Ray McKenzie 2018

Robert Tait McKenzie (1867–1938)

Canadian sculptor and medical practitioner, born in Almonte, Ontario, of Scottish parents. Graduating with an MD from McGill University, Montreal, in 1892, he began his medical career at Montreal General Hospital, later serving as a ship’s surgeon before becoming House Physician to the Governor-General of Canada in 1897. His work as a lecturer in anatomy and Medical Director in Physical Training at McGill University led him to the subject of ‘artistic anatomy’, and in 1902 he began to contribute sculptures, ‘chiefly athletic in character’, to the Royal Academy and the Paris Salon. Thereafter, his development as an artist and his work as a Professor of Physical Education at the University of Pennsylvania were closely intertwined, and in 1912 he was awarded the King of Sweden’s Medal for his sculptures at the Olympic Games in Stockholm. His concern for the promotion of physical health also led to a close involvement with the American Boy Scout movement, which in turn generated a sculptural response in such works as the monument to The Ideal Boy Scout in Philadelphia (erected 1937, removed 2014), where McKenzie lived from 1904. His public sculptures in the United Kingdom include The Homecoming, Cambridge (1922); the Scottish American War Memorial, Edinburgh (1923–27); and the statue of General James Wolfe, Greenwich (1930). His work is well represented in the collection of the National Gallery of Scotland, which includes casts of the bronze statuettes, The Athlete (1903) and The Relay (1909), and the half-life-size The Modern Discus Thrower (1927).

Sources: Johnston, W.T., Dictionary of Scottish Artists (c.2000), Scottish National Library, ref CD-ROM.585; Philadelphia Public Art: The Ideal Boy Scout; The Scotsman, 3 May 1938, p. 10.

Ray McKenzie 2018

William McMillan (1887–1977)

Born in Aberdeen, he trained first at Gray’s School of Art there, before going on to the Royal Academy. His career was interrupted by military service during the First World War, and his experience in the trenches is said to have marked him for life. His first Royal Academy exhibits from 1917 were of military subjects, and McMillan sculpted First World War memorials for Manchester and Aberdeen. In the later 1920s he carved much decorative garden sculpture, and experimented with unusual stones, such as green slate and verde di Prato. In 1931, his three-quarter-length figure of Venus was purchased for the Tate Gallery from the Royal Academy. His public portrait statues include Earl Haig (1932) for Clifton College, Bristol; George V (1938) for Calcutta; George VI (1955) for Carlton Gardens, London; and Lord Trenchard (1961) for Embankment Gardens, London. McMillan was a designer of medals, including the Great War Medal and the Victory Medal. Immediately before the outbreak of the Second World War, he was commissioned to produce the Beatty Memorial Fountain for Trafalgar Square in collaboration with Sir Edwin Lutyens. This was a pendant to the Jellicoe Fountain, sculpted by Charles Wheeler. After the war, McMillan once again worked alongside Wheeler on Sir Edward Maufe’s extensions to the Royal Navy Memorials at ChathamPlymouth and Portsmouth. In 1954, he executed the memorial to the pilots Alcock and Brown for London Airport. From 1942 onwards, he exhibited drawings and watercolours at the Royal Academy. He was elected ARA in 1925 and full RA in 1933.

Source: Obituary in the Times, 28 September 1977.

Philip Ward-Jackson 2011

Shauna McMullan (b. 1971)

Born in Northern Ireland, she studied sculpture at Cheltenham School of Art (1991–94), followed by a Masters degree divided between Glasgow School of Art and the School of the Art Institute of Chicago (1994–96). She also spent a year at the British School at Rome (1997–98) on a scholarship awarded by the Scottish Arts Council (now Creative Scotland). Her main areas of concern are with ‘landscape, mapping and place, specifically how we individually, collectively and culturally negotiate, define and mediate them’, and her working method frequently involves the participation of disparate groups of people in the production of large bodies of text. She has exhibited in Paris, Melbourne, Naples and Brussels, and in 2005 her work was included in the World Expo in Aichi, Japan. She has also carried out a number of major public commissions, including Inscribables for the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh (2003–04); Travelling the Distance for the Scottish Parliament Building, Edinburgh (2005–06); Blue Spine Collection for the Glasgow Women’s Library (2010); and Something About a Word in the Eastgate office development in the East End of Glasgow (2012). She currently works as a part-time lecturer in the Department of Sculpture and Environmental Art, Glasgow School of Art.

Sources: The Royal Scottish Academy: ‘Shauna McMullan RSA (Elect)’; The Scottish Parliament: ‘Shauna McMullan – Travelling the Distance, 2006’.

Ray McKenzie 2018

Meridian Bronze Foundry (est. 1967)

Bronze foundry established by Jack and Megan Crofton in Greenwich, their choice of name for the foundry inspired by its proximity to the prime meridian. In 1969, they moved to larger premises in Consort Road, Peckham, initially adjacent to the Corinthian Bronze Foundry and then expanding into part of those premises following Corinthian’s closure in 1971. The foundry was bought out by Morris Singer in 1999, the Croftons staying on for a short while as managers. In its heyday, Meridian’s output had been second only to Morris Singer’s in the United Kingdom. A small selection of its most important public sculpture commissions would include Franta Belsky’s Winston Churchill, 1969, Fulton, Missouri, and Earl Mountbatten, 1983, off Horse Guard’s Parade, London; Ivor Roberts-Jones’s Winston Churchill, 1973, Parliament Square, and his Field Marshal Slim, 1990, and Viscount Alanbrooke, 1993, both Whitehall; James Butler’s President Kenyatta, 1973, Nairobi, Kenya, his King Richard III, 1980, Leicester, Field Marshal Alexander, 1985, Wellington Barracks, London, and John Wilkes, 1988, Fetter Lane; Elisabeth Frink’s Paternoster, 1975, Paternoster Square, and Horse and Rider, 1975, New Bond Street Town Square (formerly sited in Dover Street); John Mills’s Blitz: The National Firefighters’ Memorial, 1990–91, Sermon Lane, City of London; and Angela Conner’s Twelve Responses to Tragedy, 1986, Cromwell Gardens, South Kensington, and General Charles de Gaulle, 1993, Carlton Gardens, London.

Sources: James, D.S, ‘Foundries’, Arts Review, 13 February 1970, pp. 70–71, 87; NPG British Bronze Sculpture Founders.

Terry Cavanagh November 2022

Leonard Stanford Merrifield (1880–1943)

Merrifield was born in Wyck Rissington, Gloucestershire. After training as a stone carver, he attended Cheltenham School of Art. He then relocated to London, studying, firstly at the City & Guilds of London Art School under W.S. Frith and then at the RA Schools, where he won the Landseer scholarship and the Armitage prize. He initially found employment in Goscombe John’s studio, but by 1891 was working independently as a stone carver in Fulham. Merrifield showed regularly at the RA summer exhibitions from 1906. In 1913, he was one of ten sculptors selected to provide statues for Cardiff City Hall, his contribution being Williams Pantycelyn. He was elected FRBS in 1926. He executed numerous war memorials, including, in Cornwall, Newlyn (1920) and the Duke of Cornwall’s Light Infantry, Bodmin (1922); in Ireland, Comber and Holywood, both County Down (both 1922) and Lurgan, County Armagh (1928); in Buckinghamshire, Burnham (1920); and in Uttarakhand, India, the Garwhal Rifles (1923). Other public statues include Ellis Humphrey Evans, Trawsfynydd, Gwynedd, Wales (1923) and Richard Trevithick, Camborne, Cornwall (1928). Merrifield was at Stamford Bridge Studios, Fulham, by 1906, moving in 1912 to 116d King’s Road and finally, from 1924, 48 Glebe Place, Chelsea. During the Second World War he was a civil defence warden, and had been present at his local ARP post earlier on the day that he died. His memorial service at St Luke’s Church, Chelsea, was well attended by family members, local dignitaries, fellow artists and civil defence wardens. At the time of his death, he was working on a statue of Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith for the House of Commons. Merrifield’s marble statue, The Nymphc.1921, is in Chelsea Library, a gift from his widow to the Metropolitan Borough of Chelsea in 1946.

Sources: Mapping SculptureWelsh Historical Sculpture: Welsh Historical Sculpture presented to the City of Cardiff by Lord Rhondda of Llanwern … on the 27th October 1916, Cardiff, 1916; Who Was Who.

Terry Cavanagh November 2022

David Miller (1931–2002)

Scottish sculptor and teacher who used a wide range of materials, including bronze, steel, marble, wood, terracotta, plaster, fibreglass and concrete. Born in Banffshire, he trained at Gray’s School of Art, Aberdeen (1948–50), and Edinburgh College of Art under Eric Schilsky (1950–53), winning a scholarship that enabled him to travel to Paris and the ceramics centre of Vallauris on the south-east coast of France. After serving in the Queen’s Own Cameron Highlanders, he returned to Scotland in 1956, spending nineteen years as a lecturer and senior lecturer in the Department of Visual Arts at Moray House School of Education, Edinburgh, where he helped to establish the Chessel Gallery at Old Playhouse Court on the Canongate. Public commissions include a three-metre-high bronze abstract sculpture in the new town square at Linwood, Renfrewshire (c.1963, now removed); three relief panels in cast reinforced concrete on the east wall of Charteris Land, a five-storey, late-1960s, Brutalist office block designed by Gordon & Dey, in Edinburgh; and the welded steel Miner and Farmer in Dalkeith, Midlothian (1976). Known to his friends as ‘Dusty’ Miller, he was also an accomplished poet, and in 1991 published an anthology of his verse, mostly written in Banffshire Doric, entitled Behind the Geranium.

Sources: McEwan, P.J.M., The Dictionary of Scottish Art and Architecture, Ballater, Aberdeenshire, 2004.

Ray McKenzie 2018

LesleyMay Miller

Multi-disciplinary artist, whose work moves between sculpture, poetry, artists’ books, etching, painting, photography and sound. From 1977 to 1981 she studied ceramics and printmaking at Edinburgh College of Art, followed by a postgraduate diploma, after which she continued her research on a cycling trip through Europe, Sri Lanka and India. In 1987, she became a founder member of the Edinburgh Sculpture Workshop. She has exhibited widely in the UK, Europe and the USA, but since setting up a sculpture garden in the Borders in 1993 her interest has been in working outdoors. Strongly influenced by the writings of Patrick Geddes, her commissioned works have included a series of collaborations with Kenny Munro at the Scots College Montpellier, France (1992–98), and a sculpture entitled Reassurance for the roof garden of the former Standard Life building at Tanfield, Edinburgh. She now lives in East Lothian.

Source: information from the artist.

Ray McKenzie 2018

Thomas Milnes (c.1810–1888)

Sculptor born in Tickhill, Yorks, the son of a stonemason. The year of Milnes’s birth given both in Gunnis and in Roscoe, 1813, is based on the fact that Milnes gave his age as 28 on his entry into the RA Schools in 1841. Chris Bell, a descendent of the sculptor, has discovered, however, that Milnes was baptised on 26 January 1810, suggesting 1809 for his year of birth. Bell presumes the date on Milnes’s tombstone in Kensal Green Cemetery, 21 December 1810, to have been supplied by his widow (his third wife) who, while knowing her husband’s birthday, was mistaken about his birth year. Milnes first came to public notice when his entry for the 1844 Westminster Hall competition, a group entitled The Death of Harold, was savaged by the Literary Gazette. Despite this inauspicious start he nevertheless won two important commissions in the late 1840s, Portland stone statues of Admiral Lord Nelson (1847) for Norwich and the Duke of Wellington (1848) for the Tower of London, now at the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich. In 1858, the government invited Milnes to model four lions for the base of Nelson’s Column in Trafalgar Square; although it is not known how he received such a prestigious commission, it may be significant that the sculptor who recommended him for entry into the RA Schools, Edward Hodges Baily, was also the sculptor of the column’s crowning figure. Unfortunately for Milnes, his models were considered unsuitable and the commission passed to Edwin Landseer. However, Titus Salt, who two years earlier had commissioned Milnes to carve his portrait bust (now United Reformed Church, Saltaire, Yorks) purchased the four lions, which were then executed in sandstone, for his workers’ village, Saltaire. Two of them, representing respectively Vigilance and Determination, are now outside the former Factory School and the other two, War and Peace, are outside Victoria Hall. Although rejected as supporters for Nelson’s Column – possibly because they lacked the requisite architectural calm – the Art Journal (1869, p. 159) thought they compared ‘by no means unfavourably with those in Trafalgar Square’. Milnes’s funerary commissions include a free-standing monument to Alfred Cooke, 1854, Kensal Green Cemetery (now ruinous) and a wall monument to the architect and engineer George Knowles (d. 1856) in St John’s Church (built by Knowles), Sharow, Yorks, this latter featuring a dramatic relief of a bridge succumbing to a raging torrent (presumably a symbol of death more suitable to an engineer than the traditional broken column). Milnes showed at the Great Exhibition of 1851 and also the International Exhibition of 1862, and was a regular exhibitor at the RA (26 works, mostly busts, 1842–66).

Sources: Bell, C., ‘Thomas Milnes, c.1810–1888. The nearly man of British sculpture’, The Saltaire Village Website, World Heritage Site; Cocke, R., Public Sculpture of Norfolk and Suffolk, Liverpool, 2013; Gunnis, R., Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660–1951, London, [1968]; Mapping Sculpture; Roscoe et al, A Biographical Dictionary of Sculptors in Britain 1660–1851, New Haven and London, 2009; Victorian Web.

Terry Cavanagh November 2022

Denys Mitchell (1939–2015)

Sculptor and metal worker, and founder member of the British Artist Blacksmiths Association. Born in Aberdeenshire, he completed a blacksmithing course at West Dean College, Sussex, and went on to study at Camberwell School of Art, London. Working in a range of forms from ecclesiastical fittings to the reproduction of medieval armour, Mitchell undertook commissions throughout northern Europe and the USA. His most important work in the UK is The Knight of the Cnihtengild, 1990, a more than twice life-size beaten bronze figure of a medieval knight on horseback, commissioned by Standard Life Assurance Company for the courtyard of their offices in Cutlers’ Gardens, London, replacing a statue of Margaret Thatcher. For most of his professional life he worked from a forge based in a converted Ragged School in Kelso, Roxburghshire.

Sources: information from Denys Mitchell; Creed, J., and A. Dawson, ‘Obituary: Denys Mitchell 3 March 1939‒15 August 2015’, Artist Blacksmith, no. 147, 2015, pp. 32–33; Ward-Jackson, P., Public Sculpture of the City of London, Liverpool, 2003, pp. 94–95.

Ray McKenzie 2018

William Mitchell (1925–2020)

Sculptor and designer born in London. He began his art studies in the 1950s, firstly at the Southern College of Art, Portsmouth, and subsequently the Royal College of Art, where he won the Abbey Award, a fourth-year scholarship which enabled him to complete his studies at the British School at Rome. Following his return from Italy, he was taken on as design consultant in the LCC architects department, creating sculptural finishes for the many new developments then under construction across London. In the early 1960s he established his own company, the William Mitchell Design Consultants Group, to produce sculptures in wood, marble, brick, glass-reinforced-plastic and concrete. Many of his sculptures have been grade II listed by Historic England; examples include Corn King and Spring Queen sculptures, 1964, former Cement & Concrete Association building, Wexham, Buckinghamshire (listed 1998); three totem sculptures, 1966, Allerton Building, University of Salford (listed 2012); a mural, 1966, on the former Three Tuns pub, Coventry (listed 2009); and Story of Wool, 1968, a mural over the porch of the International Wool Secretariat building, Ben Rhydding, Ilkley, Yorkshire (listed 2015). Mitchell also executed architectural sculpture, 1967, for the Roman Catholic Cathedral, Liverpool, and a Stations of the Cross, 1973, for Clifton Cathedral, Bristol. For many years, he was artistic design adviser to Mohammed Al Fayed, owner of Harrods, 1985–2010. Following the death in a car crash in 1997 of Fayed’s son, Emad (‘Dodi’), and Diana, Princess of Wales, Fayed commissioned Mitchell to create a sculpture, Innocent Victims, alluding to his unfounded belief that the British royal family had ordered the couple’s murder. Erected between the escalators in Harrods’ Egyptian Room (for which Mitchell had also provided all the ornamentation), it was removed following the takeover by Qatari Holdings in 2018.

Sources: Cavanagh, T., Public Sculpture of Liverpool, Liverpool, 1997; Cavanagh, T., Public Sculpture of South London, Liverpool, 2007; Lloyd, F., et al, Public Sculpture of Outer South and West London, Liverpool, 2011; Noszlopy, G.T., Public Sculpture of Birmingham (ed. J. Beach), Liverpool, 1998; Noszlopy, G.T., Public Sculpture of Warwickshire, Coventry and Solihull, Liverpool, 2003; Seddon, J., et al, Public Sculpture of Sussex, Liverpool, 2014; White, D., et al, Public Sculpture of Sheffield and South Yorkshire, Liverpool, 2015; Wyke, T., Public Sculpture of Greater Manchester, Liverpool, 2004; relevant Historic England list entries.

Terry Cavanagh November 2022

Mitchell, William

William Mitchell holding the Precast Award for 2014, which had just been presented to him by the Concrete Society (photo: Elaine Toogood)

Gardner Molloy (b. 1964)

Sculptor, stone carver and letter-cutter based in Cockenzie, East Lothian, Scotland. He trained as a stonemason at Telford College, Edinburgh, from 1986 to 1989, and as a stone carver with Ian Ketchin from 1988 to 1991. He was also tutored in letter-cutting by the Welsh carver and calligrapher Ieuan Rees. He has undertaken numerous inscription projects in Edinburgh, including those for the National Galleries of Scotland, the University of Edinburgh and the Hotel Missoni on George IV Bridge, as well as sculptural commissions in other parts of Scotland, such as a series of public art installations in the closes and wynds of Dunfermline (2009), and relief portrait of Thomas Chalmers in the Chalmers Memorial Garden in Anstruther (2013). Many of his public works are carried out in collaboration with the environmental consultants Ironside Farrer.

Source: information from the artist.

Ray McKenzie 2018

Leonid Molodozhanyn / Leo Mol (1915–2009)

Winnipeg-based sculptor, ceramicist and stained-glass designer born in Polonne, Ukraine. He was taught to model in clay by his father, a potter, but at 15, began learning his craft as a sculptor, firstly with Wilhelm Frass in Vienna and then Fritz Klimsch in Berlin. Molodozhanyn attended the Leningrad Academy of Arts, 1936–40, but at the outbreak of war with Germany was conscripted. He married in 1943 and in 1945 he and his wife fled, firstly to Holland and then, in 1948, to Canada. It was at this point that he changed his name to Leo Mol. He had his first exhibition (ceramics) in Winnipeg, but afterwards established a reputation as a portrait sculptor, using a modified lost wax process. He won an international competition for a memorial to the Ukrainian poet and artist, Taras Shevchenko, for Washington DC (unveiled 1964), with replicas following for Buenos Aires, Argentina (1971), and Prudentópolis, Brazil (1989); in 2000, he presented a fourth cast to St Petersburg. Other public statues include Queen Elizabeth II, 1970, Winnipeg; John Diefenbaker, 1986, Ottawa; and St Volodymyr, 1987, Holland Park Avenue, London. In 1992, the Leo Mol sculpture studio and garden was established in Assiniboine Park, Winnipeg (CPRA Award of Excellence for Innovation in 1995). In 2002, his bronze Lumberjacks (1990) was featured on a Canadian postage stamp. Mol received honorary doctorates from the universities of Winnipeg, Alberta and Manitoba; was appointed Officer of the Order of Canada (1989); and was awarded the Order of Manitoba and made an honorary academician of the Canadian Portrait Academy (both 2002). He was a member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts and the Allied Artists of America, and a one-time president of the Manitoba Society of Artists and the Sculptors’ Society of Canada.

Sources: Internet Encyclopedia of Ukraine (updated 2014); Mayes, A., ‘Accomplished Artist: Leo Mol was Manitoba’s best-known and most honoured sculptor’, 7 July 2009, Winnipeg Free PressWikipedia

Terry Cavanagh November 2022

Molodozhanyn, Leonid (aka Leo Mol)

Leo Mol in his studio in Winnipeg, Canada
(photo: public domain)

Paul Raphael Montford (1868–1938)

Sculptor and teacher born in Kentish Town, the son of the sculptor Horace Montford. He was taught modelling by his father and learnt to draw at the Lambeth School of Art, 1884–85. In 1887, he entered the RA Schools on a British Institution Scholarship and in 1891 won the RA’s Gold Medal and Travelling Studentship for Composition in Sculpture (for his group, Jacob Wrestling with an Angel). Throughout the 1890s, he shared a studio with his father, firstly at Battersea and then from c.1903 at Clapham. From 1898 to 1903, he taught modelling at South West London (Chelsea) Polytechnic. Impressed with the monuments that he had seen on his European travels, he decided to specialise in architectural figure sculpture. He initially enjoyed considerable success, working with some of the leading architects of the day. For E.W. Mountford he executed 10 allegorical figures for the façade of the Battersea Polytechnic Institute, 1890–93, plus reliefs on Battersea Town Hall, 1892, and the Northampton Institute (now City University), Clerkenwell, 1896; in each of these he was assisted by his father. For Aston Webb he executed relief figures representing William Caxton and George Heriot, 1905, for the Exhibition Road façade of the V&A Museum, and all the architectural sculpture for the Royal School of Mines, South Kensington, including two figure groups supporting colossal busts of Sir Julius Wernher and Alfred Beit either side of the main entrance, c.1916. For Lanchester, Stewart and Rickards, he executed relief groups, 1901–05, for Cardiff City Hall, and in 1908 the attic relief for J.M. Brydon’s arched screen, 1908, across King Charles Street, Whitehall. By 1923, however, Montford was finding it difficult to secure new commissions in England, and so emigrated to Australia, his most important commissions there being war memorials at Camperdown (1927–29) and Melbourne (1927–32). M.H. Spielmann’s assessment of Montford from the earlier part of his career (1901) remains valid; his work was, he wrote, was ‘excellent in drawing, and though a little academic and not strikingly original, it is decorative in character and vigorous in conception and handling.’

Sources: ‘Battersea and Art. A Chat with Mr. Paul Montford’, South London Press, 19 August 1893, p. 5; Builder, 28 January 1938, p. 196 (obit.); Giddings, G., ‘Paul Raphael Montford, Sculptor’, Architects’ Journal, vol. lvi, no. 1457, 6 December 1922, pp. 789–92; McKenzie, R., Public Sculpture of Glasgow, Liverpool, 2002; Mapping Sculpture; Moriarty, C., The Commemorative Sculpture of Paul Montford, University of Brighton and Shrine of Remembrance, Melbourne, 2017; Parkes, K., Sculpture of To-Day, London, 1921, vol. 1; Spielmann, M.H., British Sculpture and Sculptors of To-Day, London, 1901; Who Was Who; Zimmer, J., ‘Montford, Paul Raphael (1868–1938)’, 1986, online 2006, Australian Dictionary of Biography; information from Royal Academy of Arts archives.

Terry Cavanagh November 2022

Francis (‘Frank’) Wollaston Moody (1824–1886)

A designer, painter and teacher, he was the son of the rector of Chartham, Kent, and was educated at Eton College. He then spent a year studying with the painter C.W. Cope RA before entering the National Art Training School (NATS), South Kensington. In 1863, Moody’s talent brought him to the attention of Richard Redgrave who introduced him to Godfrey Sykes and he was taken on as an assistant. Moody’s work was thereafter much influenced by Sykes and Sykes’s master, Alfred Stevens, and he followed a similar, but distinctive, style based on the art of the Italian Renaissance. In 1865, he designed the South Kensington Museum’s Ceramic Staircase. He was appointed Instructor in Decorative Art at NATS and some of the more advanced students were selected to assist him in his own work for the decoration of the museum and its local branches, for example, at Bethnal Green, where the students executed the mosaic panels to Moody’s designs. In 1871, Henry Cole commissioned Moody to prepare designs in sgraffito for the new Science Schools building (1871–72), its success leading to similar work on the National Training School for Music (1874–75). Moody was, by all accounts, a brilliant and inspirational teacher and in 1873, published a successful volume on decorative design, Lectures and Lessons on Art. He exhibited occasionally, from 1850 to 1877, at the RA, the British Institution and the Suffolk Street Gallery.

Sources: The Athenaeum, 21 August 1886, p. 249; Gibbons, O., ‘An Art Teacher: the late F.W. Moody’, Magazine of Art, 1893, pp. 404–08; Marsden, C., ‘Godfrey Sykes and his studio at the South Kensington Museum’, in M. Pye and L. Sandino (eds.), Artists Work in Museums: histories, interventions, subjectivities, Bath, 2013, pp. 48–62; Physick, J., The Victoria and Albert Museum: The History of its Building, London, 1982.

Terry Cavanagh November 2022

Henry Spencer Moore (1898–1986)

Sculptor. Born in Castleford (Yorks.), son of a coalminer. Despite wishing to become a sculptor from an early age, he first taught at an elementary school, and then volunteered for the army and was sent to the front in 1917. Invalided out after a gas attack, he served as an army instructor for the remainder of the war. After demobilisation he studied art, first at Leeds School of Art, and then at the Royal College of Art in London (1921–24), where he was taught drawing by the painter and sculptor Leon Underwood. He travelled via France to Italy in 1925, but this trip confirmed his preference, already reinforced by the examples of Gauguin and Van Gogh, and more recently of Jacob Epstein, for non-European artistic traditions. The blocky monumentalism and stylisation of Pre-Columbian sculpture was the predominant influence on such stonecarvings as Mother and Child (1924, Manchester City Art Galleries), and Reclining Figure (1929, Leeds City Art Gallery). Moore became part of an artistic group resident in Hampstead, including Barbara Hepworth, whom he had first met at the Leeds Art School, and the painter Paul Nash. A strong believer, at this stage, in the doctrine of truth to materials, Moore worked through certain fundamental motifs, most regularly the reclining figure, which he was to treat repeatedly throughout his career, investigating the interaction of form and space. In the 1930s his treatment of the figure became increasingly strange, under the influence of continental artists, Picasso, Arp, Giacometti and the surrealists. Some of his sculptures, following the example of Hepworth were now ostensibly abstract, although still tenuously linked with the figure, as in his stringed figures of 1937–40. Between 1938 and 1940 Moore cast a number of sculptures in lead, and thereafter moved away from truth to materials, to an acceptance of bronze casting. Moore’s drawings had long been appreciated by other artists, but during the Second World War, his Shelter Drawings, depicting Londoners sheltering from air-raids in the Underground, brought him a wider acclaim. After the war, Moore’s work began to be massively promoted by the British Council through touring exhibitions. In 1931, he and his wife had moved to Kent, but then, during the war, they set up house in Perry Green (Herts.). Despite the fact that his sculptures were, from the 1950s, increasingly frequently being erected in urban open spaces, Moore was preoccupied with the effect of his work in the landscape, and occasionally, as in the case of the King and Queen (1952–53), erected at Glenkiln (Dumfries), this contextual vision was realised. He became a cultural figurehead, serving on the boards of the Arts Council of Great Britain, the Royal Fine Art Commission and the National Theatre. In 1967, 41 artists, including ex-assistants of Moore, wrote to the Times protesting at the proposed use of public funds to showcase a large gift of work by the sculptor to the Tate Gallery. In 1977 he set up the Henry Moore Foundation, which preserved his studios and their contents at Perry Green, and in 1982, the foundation established The Henry Moore Sculpture Gallery and Centre for the Study of Sculpture at Leeds.

Source: Wilkinson, A., ‘Moore, Henry Spencer (1898–1986)’, ODNB, (2004), 2009.

Philip Ward-Jackson 2023

Morris Art Bronze Foundry (active 1921–1927)

Bronze foundry formerly based in Dorset Road, Lambeth. It was established in 1921 with financial backing from the William Morris Company (Westminster) Ltd, whose speciality was ornamental metal work and stained glass (as Duncan James has pointed out, this was not the William Morris, though Morris undoubtedly took no great pains to disabuse potential clients from such a favourable misapprehension). The first manager, responsible for setting up the foundry, was Leonard Grist, who had served his apprenticeship and risen to the level of foreman at J.W. Singer’s foundry. Given the specialised nature of the skills required by an art foundry, Grist had no alternative but to poach his craftsmen from his old employer and also from Singer’s chief rival, A.B. Burton, of Thames Ditton. The Morris Art Bronze Foundry soon acquired a reputation for skilful handling of both sand casting and lost wax and won many of the most prestigious public commissions, including the memorial to William Lister, 1922, by Sir Thomas Brock, London; the statue of Lord Ronaldshay, c.1924, by John Tweed, Bombay, India; the memorial to the Bishop of Coventry, 1925, by William Hamo Thornycroft, Coventry Cathedral; and numerous war memorials, including ChathamPlymouth and Portsmouth, all 1923–24, by Henry Poole; Ilford, 1924, by Charles Wheeler; and the Machine Gun Corps, 1925, by Francis Derwent Wood and The Guards Division, 1923–26 by Gilbert Ledward, both London. Ledward’s Awakening, Ropers Gardens, Chelsea Embankment, had been one of the foundry’s earliest casts, c.1922. Grist left in 1925 to set up the Corinthian Bronze Foundry. In 1927, J. W. Singer, unable to compete from its remote location in Frome, sold off the art foundry part of its business to William Morris & Co and the amalgamated foundry continued as the Morris Singer Company.

Sources: James, D.S., A Century of Statues. The history of the Morris Singer Foundry, Basingstoke, Hants, 1984; NPG British Bronze Sculpture Founders.

Terry Cavanagh November 2022

Morris Singer (est. 1927)

Art foundry formed from an amalgamation of J. W. Singer and The Morris Art Bronze Foundry, operating from Dorset Road, Lambeth, until relocation to Basingstoke, Hampshire, in 1967. In 1993, the foundry was put into receivership but, despite financial problems, relocated in 1999 to a new site at nearby Lasham. In 2005, the Morris Singer name was acquired by Art Founders Ltd and, as Morris Singer Art Founders, moved to Braintree, Essex. However, by 2010 the foundry had again gone into administration and its assets were purchased by Nasser Azam, who formed a new business, Zahra Modern Art Foundries. This too went into liquidation, in 2013. Meanwhile, in 2011, John Berelowitz had set up a new incarnation of the old foundry which began trading as Morris Singer Art Foundry Ltd on the old foundry’s Lasham site. In its early years the foundry had acquired and maintained its commercial primacy by its expeditious adoption of new techniques. Most of the foundry’s work has been in bronze, although some important pieces have been cast in aluminium, e.g., Jacob Epstein’s Les Majestas, 1956, Llandaff Cathedral, and Mario Armengol’s ten 6.75m-high figures for Expo ’67 (now at Calgary, Canada). In its prime Britain’s most successful foundry, it was used by most of the country’s leading twentieth-century sculptors at one time or another.

Sources: Daily Telegraph, 11 December 1993, p. 11; James, D.S., A Century of Statues. The history of the Morris Singer Foundry, Basingstoke, Hants, 1984; Morris Singer Foundry website; NPG British Bronze Sculpture Founders.

Terry Cavanagh November 2022

Anthony Morrow (b. 1954)

A Scottish sculptor and teacher, he studied Fine Art at Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art, Dundee (where he subsequently taught sculpture and life drawing) and Art Therapy at Hertfordshire College of Art (1991–92). While still an undergraduate he collaborated with Nick Gillon on the commission for a bronze statue of the strip-cartoon character Lobey Dosser in Glasgow (completed 1992), and since then has produced numerous city-centre sculptures in Dundee celebrating fictional or imaginary creatures, such as the large Dragon in Murraygate (begun by his former teacher Alistair Smart, but completed by Morrow in 1994), and the D.C. Thomson comic characters Desperate Dan, Dawg and Minnie the Minx in City Square (both in collaboration with his partner Susie Paterson, 2001). He has also undertaken restoration work at St Magnus Cathedral, Orkney, and in 1994 he made a replacement for Alistair Smart’s damaged bronze statue of Peter Pan, erected in 1968 in Kirriemuir, Angus, Scotland, as a monument to J. M. Barrie.

Sources: information provided by the artist; Wall, I., et al, Twelve Poets at Edinburgh Park, Edinburgh, 2005, p. 31.

Ray McKenzie 2018

Gordon Muir (b. 1959)

Sculptor, born in Hawick, he was educated at ‘several London art colleges’ and the University of New Mexico, after which he spent time working with woodblock artists in Japan. Much of his recent sculptural work has been carried out in collaboration with the Paul Hogarth Company, including Leap of Faith in West Belfast, and Three Heads at the Bank Street Basin of the Monkland Canal, Coatbridge, North Lanarkshire, both dating from 2010.

Source: Gordon Muir Sculpture (Facebook).

Ray McKenzie 2018

Alexander Munro (1825–1871)

Sculptor. He was a dyer’s son from Inverness, and was early patronised by the Duke and Duchess of Sutherland. While studying at the Royal Academy in London, where he was accepted in 1847, Munro was drawn into the orbit of Dante Gabriel Rossetti and the newly formed Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. His reputation was established with Paolo and Francesca, a group inspired by an episode in Dante’s Divine Comedy. This was exhibited in plaster at the Great Exhibition in 1851, and in marble at the Royal Academy in 1852. The marble version is now in the Birmingham City Art Gallery. Munro was rather averse to public commissions, but he created five statues of historical scientists for the Oxford Museum (1855–60), and commemorative statues of Herbert Ingram, founder of the Illustrated London News, for Boston, Lincs. (1862), and of James Watt for Birmingham (1868). He preferred literary subjects, and was also successful as a portraitist. Many of his portraits are in traditional bust form, but relief medallions were also one of his specialities. Amongst his most distinctive productions are his poeticised full-length portraits of children. From 1865 Munro, who suffered from tuberculosis, was forced to spend more and more time in France. There he did busts of the author, Prosper Merimée, the lawyer and politician, Odilon Barrot and the philosopher, Victor Cousin. Following his death, in 1872 he was honoured by a special exhibition at the Birmingham and Midland Institute.

Source: Read, B., and J. Barnes, Pre-Raphaelite Sculpture. Nature and Imagination 1848–1914, London, 1991.

Philip Ward-Jackson 2011

Munro, Alexander

Alexander Munro with his wife, Mary (née Carruthers), 1863, photographed by Lewis Carroll
(photo: public domain)

Kenny Munro (b. 1954)

Sculptor and teacher working in a wide range of materials and idioms, and with a strong emphasis on community participation. Born in Edinburgh, the elder son of the sculptor and jazz musician James Munro, he studied at Edinburgh College of Art (1972–77). After travelling on a postgraduate scholarship to Norway, and a period working as an environmental artist at Livingston new town, West Lothian, he went on to complete a course in foundry practice at the Royal College of Art, London (1980). Much influenced in his approach to art and its role in society by the writings of Patrick Geddes, he has exhibited in group shows at the Collège des Ecossais in Montpellier, France (1992 and 1993), and has had solo exhibitions in Edinburgh (1988), Stornoway, Outer Hebrides (1994) and Selkirk, Scottish Borders (1995). Among his public commissions are Stones of Scotland – with George Wyllie and LesleyMay Miller – Regent Park Road, Edinburgh (2000–02); The Pyramid Stone, a structure decorated with bronze badges designed by children from five local primary schools, at Renfrew, Renfrewshire (2005); Tempus Fugit, a homage to the actor and playwright Neil Munro, at Musselburgh, East Lothian (2009), and Reflected Vision, a mirrored stainless-steel structure erected at the University of Exeter (2015) as a memorial to the Scottish film maker Bill Douglas. Munro currently lives and works in Kinghorn, Fife.

Sources: information from the artist; McEwan, P.J.M., The Dictionary of Scottish Art and Architecture, Ballater, Aberdeenshire, 2004.

Ray McKenzie 2018

Alexander Mylne (1613–1643)

Sculptor about whom little is known, other than that he was the son of the architect John Mylne (d. 1657), the brother of the sculptor and Master Mason to the Crown, John Mylne Junior, and the father of Robert Mylne (1633–1710), who was also Master Mason to the Crown. The only extant works associated with him in Edinburgh are a sundial at the Palace of Holyroodhouse (c.1633), on which he may have collaborated with his father; carved figures of Justice and Mercy (1637), now inside Parliament House, Edinburgh, originally on the frontage, either side of a set of carved Royal Arms, over the entrance to the building’s west wing; and the arms of the City of Edinburgh (c.1640) in an ornamental pediment over the circular window on the north façade of the Tron Kirk. He died at the age of thirty, probably of the plague, and is buried in Holyrood Abbey, where the verse inscription on his gravestone includes the lines: ‘What Myron or Appelles could have done / In Brasse or Paintry hee could that in Stone’.

Sources: Gifford, J., et al, Edinburgh, Harmondsworth, 1984, p. 147; Johnston, W.T., Dictionary of Scottish Artists (c.2000), Scottish National Library, ref CD-ROM.585; Mylne, R.S., The Master Masons to the Crown of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1893, pp. 130–31, 305; Pearson, F. (ed.), Virtue and Vision: Sculpture in Scotland, Edinburgh, 1991, pp. 28–29.

Ray McKenzie 2018

John Mylne (c.1585–1657)

Architect and sculptor from Perth, and the father of Alexander Mylne and John Mylne Junior. He was the son of the Master Mason to James VI, John Mylne (d. 1621), whom he assisted on the construction of the bridge over the river Tay in Perth. He was called to Edinburgh in 1616 to complete the statue of James VI and I, and was made a burgess of the city the following year. He left Edinburgh in 1618, working at Falkland and Aberdeen, before returning in 1629 to carry out work at Holyroodhouse, including a sundial in the garden to the north of the Queen’s Tower. Described as ‘richly decorated with the initials and appropriate emblems of the princes of the House of Stuart’, it is said to have cost £408 15s 6d Scots, and was probably carried out with the assistance of his two sons. In 1631, he succeeded William Wallace as Master Mason to the Crown.

Sources: Dictionary of Scottish Architects; Howarth, D., ‘Sculpture in Scotland 1540–1700’, in Pearson, F. (ed.), Virtue and Vision: Sculpture in Scotland, Edinburgh, 1991, p. 28; Mylne, R.S., The Master Masons to the Crown of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1893, pp. 104–15, 305; Mylne, R.S., ‘The Netherbow Port’, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, vol. 46, 1911–12, p. 386.

Ray McKenzie 2018

John Mylne Junior (1611–1667)

Architect and sculptor, he was the brother of Alexander Mylne, and the most distinguished member of the Mylne family who dominated Scottish architecture in the seventeenth century. He replaced his father as Master Mason to the Crown in 1636, and in addition to designing the Tron Kirk, Edinburgh (1636–46), he carried out repair work on the crown spire of St Giles Cathedral (1648) and made a survey of the Palace of Holyroodhouse (1633–70). Apart from his possible involvement with the sundial at Holyroodhouse, his only other recorded sculptural work is a statue of John Cowane on Cowane’s Hospital in Stirling, which he also designed (1637–48).

Sources: Dictionary of Scottish Architects; Gifford, J., et al, Edinburgh, Harmondsworth, 1984, pp. 37, 109, 126; Gifford, J., and F.A. Walker, Stirling and Central Scotland (New Haven and London,, 2002, pp. 707–08; Johnston, W.T., Dictionary of Scottish Artists (c.2000), Scottish National Library, ref CD-ROM.585; McEwan, P.J.M., The Dictionary of Scottish Art and Architecture, Ballater, Aberdeenshire, 2004; Mylne, R.S., The Master Masons to the Crown of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1893, p. 305.

Ray McKenzie 2018